THEORETICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC STUDIES AND LEARNING ASSOCIATION, INC.
522 WEST THIRD STREET
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THE INFLUENCE OF VEDIC PHILOSOPHY ON NIKOLA TESLA'S UNDERSTANDING OF FREE ENERGY
"The first thing to realize about the ether is its absolute
continuity. A deep sea fish has probably no means of
apprehending the existence of water; it is too uniformly
immersed in it: and that is our condition in regard to the
Sir Oliver Lodge, Ether and Reality.
Nikola Tesla used ancient Sanskrit terminology in his descriptions of natural phenomena. As early as 1891 Tesla described the universe as a kinetic system filled with energy which could be harnessed at any location. His concepts during the following years were greatly influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda was the first of a succession of eastern yogi's who brought Vedic philosophy and religion to the west. After meeting the Swami and after continued study of the Eastern view of the mechanisms driving the material world, Tesla began using the Sanskrit words Akasha, Prana, and the concept of a luminiferous ether to describe the source, existence and construction of matter. This paper will trace the development of
Tesla's understanding of Vedic Science, his correspondence with Lord Kelvin concerning these matters, and the relation between Tesla and Walter Russell and other turn of the century scientists concerning advanced understanding of physics. Finally, after being obscured for many years, the author will give a description of what he believes is the the pre-requisite for the free energy systems envisioned by Tesla .
TESLA'S EARLIER DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE
By the year 1891, Nikola Tesla had invented many useful devices.
These included a system of arc lighting (1886), the alternating current motor, power generation and transmission systems (1888), systems of electrical conversion and distribution by oscillatory discharges (1889), and a generator of high frequency currents (1890), to name a few. The most well known patent centers around an inspiration that occurred while walking with a friend in a park in Budapest, Hungry. It was while observing the sunset that Tesla had a vision of how rotating electromagnetic fields could be used in a new form of electric motor. This led to the well known system of alternating current power distribution. In 1891 however, Tesla patented what one day may become his most famous invention. It is the basis for the wireless transmission of electrical power and is know as the Tesla Coil Transformer. It was during this year that Tesla made the following comments during a speech before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers;
"Ere many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by
a power obtainable at any point in the universe. This idea
is not novel... We find it in the delightful myth of
Antheus, who derives power from the earth; we find it among
the subtle speculations of one of your splendid
mathematicians... Throughout space there is energy. Is
this energy static or kinetic.? If static our hopes are in
vain; if kinetic - and this we know it is, for certain -
then it is a mere question of time when men will succeed
in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of
This description of the physical mechanisms of the universe was given before Tesla became familiar with the Vedic science of the eastern Nations of India, Tibet, and Nepal. This science was first popualized in the United States and the west during the three year visit of Swami Vivekananda.
VEDIC SCIENCE AND SWAMI VIVEKANANDA
The Vedas are a collection of writings consisting of hymns, prayers, myths, historical accounting, dissertations on science, and the nature of reality, which date back at least 5,000 years. The nature of matter, antimatter, and the make up of atomic structure are described in the Vedas. The language of the Vedas is known as Sanskrit. The origin of Sanskrit is not fully understood. Western scholars suggest that it was brought into the Himalayas and thence south into India by the southward migrations of the Aryan culture. Paramahansa Yogananda and other historians however do not subscribe to that theory, pointing out that there is no evidence within India to substantiate such claims.
There are words in Sanskrit that describe concepts totally foreign to the western mind. Single words may require a full paragraph for
translation into English. Having studied Sanskrit for a brief period
during the late 70's, it finally occurred to this writer that Tesla's
use of Vedic terminology could provide a key to understanding his view of electromagnetism and the nature of the universe. But where did Tesla learn Vedic concepts and Sanskrit terminology? A review of the well known biographies by Cheney, Hunt and Draper, and O'Neil 3,4,5, reveal no mention of Tesla's knowledge of Sanskrit. O'Neal however includes the following excerpt from an unpublished article called Man's Greatest Achievement;
"There manifests itself in the fully developed being , Man,
a desire mysterious, inscrutable and irresistible: to imitate nature, to create, to work himself the wonders he perceives.... Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasha or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life giving
Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance."
According to Leland Anderson the article was written May 13th,
1907. Anderson also suggested that it was through association with Swami Vivekananda that Tesla may have come into contact with Sanskrit terminology and that John Dobson of the San Francisco Sidewalk Astronomers Association had researched that association. 6
Swami Vivekananda was born in Calcutta, India in 1863. He was
inspired by his teacher, Ramakrishna to serve men as visible
manifestations of God. In 1893 Swami Vivekananda began a tour of the west by attending the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago. During the three years that he toured the United States and Europe, Vivekananda met with many of the well known scientists of the time including Lord Kelvin and Nikola Tesla. 7 According to Swami Nikhilananda;
Nikola Tesla, the great scientist who specialized in the field of electricity, was much impressed to hear from the Swami his explanation of the Samkhya cosmogony and the theory of cycles given by the Hindus. He was particularly struck by the resemblance between the Samkhya theory of matter and
energy and that of modern physics. The Swami also met in New
York Sir William Thompson, afterwards Lord Kelvin, and
Professor Helmholtz, two leading representatives of western
science. Sarah Bernhardt, the famous French actress had an
interview with the Swami and greatly admired his teachings. 8
It was at a party given by Sarah Bernhardt that Nikola Tesla probably first met Swami Vivekananda. 9 Sarah Bernhardt was playing the part of 'Iziel' in a play of the same name. It was a French version about the life of Bhudda. The actress upon seeing Swami Vivekananda in the audience, arranged a meeting which was also attended by Nikola Tesla. In a letter to a friend, dated February 13th, 1896, Swami Vivekananda noted the following;
...Mr. Tesla was charmed to hear about the Vedantic Prana
and Akasha and the Kalpas, which according to him are the
only theories modern science can entertain.....Mr Tesla
thinks he can demonstrate that mathematically that force and
matter are reducible to potential energy. I am to go see him
next week to get this mathematical demonstration. 10
Swami Vivekananda was hopeful that Tesla would be able to show that what we call matter is simply potential energy because that would reconcile the teachings of the Vedas with modern science. The Swami realized that "In that case, the Vedantic cosmology [would] be placed on the surest of foundations". The harmony between Vedantic theories and and western science was explained by the following diagram;
BRAHMAN = THE ABSOLUTE
MAHAT OR ISHVARA = PRIMAL CREATIVE ENERGY
PRANA and AKASHA = ENERGY and MATTER
Tesla understood the Sanskrit terminology and philosophy and found that it was a good means to describe the physical mechanisms of the universe as seen through his eyes. It would behoove those who would attempt to understand the science behind the inventions of Nikola Tesla to study Sanskrit and Vedic philosophy.
Tesla apparently failed to show the identity of energy and matter.
If he had, certainly Swami Vivekananda would have recorded that
occasion. The mathematical proof of the principle did come until
about ten years later when Albert Einstein published his paper on
relativity. What had been known in the East for the last 5,000 years was then known to the West.
Brahman is defined as the one self existent impersonal spirit; the
Divine Essence, from which all things emanate, by which they are
sustained, and to which they return. Notice that this is very similar
to the concept of the Great Spirit as understood by Native American cultures. Ishvara is the Supreme Ruler; the highest possible conception of the Absolute, which is beyond all thought. Mahat means literally the Great One, and is also interpreted as meaning universal mind or cosmic intelligence. Prana means energy (usually translated as life force) and Akasha means matter (usually translated as ether). Dobson points out that the more common translations for Akasha and Prana are not quite correct, but that Tesla did understand their true meanings.
The meeting with Swami Vivekananda greatly stimulated Nikola Tesla's interest in Eastern Science. The Swami later remarked during a lecture in India, "I myself have been told by some of the best scientific minds of the day, how wonderfully rational the conclusions of the Vedanta are. I know of one of them personally, who scarcely has time to eat his meal, or go out of his laboratory, but who would stand by the hour to attend my lectures on the Vedanta; for, as he expresses it, they are so scientific, they so exactly harmonize with the aspirations of the age and with the conclusions to which modern science is coming at the present time". 11
TESLA AND LORD KELVIN
William S. Thompson was one of the prominent scientists and engineers of the 1800s. He developed analogies between heat and electricity and his work influenced the theories developed by James Clerk Maxwell, one of the founders of electromagnetic theory. Thompson supervised the successful laying of the Trans Atlantic Cable and for that work was knighted Lord Kelvin. Kelvin had endorsed Tesla's theories and proposed system for the wireless transmission of electrical power. 12 FootNOTE-
Tesla continued to study Hindu and Vedic philosophy for a number of years as indicated by the following letter written to him by Lord Kelvin.
15, Eaton Place
May 20, 1902
Dear Mr. Tesla,
I do not know how I can ever thank you enough for the
most kind letter of May, 10, which I found in my cabin in the
Lucania, with the beautiful books which you most kindly sent
me along with it: -"The Buried Temple", "The Gospel of
Bhudda", Les Grands Inities", the exquisite edition of
Rossetti's "House of Life", and last but not least the
Century Magazine for June, 1900 with the splendid and
marvelous photographs on pp. 176, 187, 190, 191, 192, full of
We had a most beautiful passage across the Atlantic, much
the finest I have ever had. I was trying hard nearly all the
way, but quite unsuccessfully, to find something definite as
to the functions of ether in respect to plain, old fashioned
magnetism. A propos of this, I have instructed the
publishers, Messrs. Macmillan, to send you at the Waldorf a
copy of my book (Collection of Separate Papers) on
Electrostatics and Magnetism. I shall be glad if you will
accept it from me as a very small mark of my gratitude to you
for your kindness. You may possibly find something
interesting in the articles on Atmospheric Electricity which
Lady Kelvin joins me in kind regards, and I remain,
Yours always truly,
Thank you also warmly for the beautiful flowers 13
TESLA AND RUSSELL
Walter Russell was one of the most accomplished artists, sculptors, writers and scientists of this century. His periodic chart of the elements accurately predicted the location and characteristics of four elements years before they were discovered in laboratories. These are now known as Deuterium, Tritium, Neptunium, and Plutonium. Russell apparently entered into a heightened state of awareness after being struck by lightning. He began several weeks of drawing and writing about the basic nature and make up of the physical universe. Russells' family finally called the family doctor to determine if Russell should be committed to an mental institution. The doctor, upon seeing the results of Russells weeks of work, said that he did not know what Russell was doing, but that he definitely was not mad.
Although the exact time and occasion of their meeting has not yet
been determined, Nikola Tesla and Walter Russell did meet and discuss their respective cosmologies. 14 Tesla recognized the wisdom and power of Russells' teaching and urged Russell to lock up his knowledge in a safe for 1,000 years until man was ready for it. 15
WHY FREE ENERGY HASN'T HAPPENED YET
COMMENTS, POSSIBILITIES AND SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS
Although Tesla did not accept many of the tenants of relativity and
quantum theory and never made the connection between matter and energy, he did recognize the possibility of free and unlimited energy as demonstrated by the following statement.
Can Man control [the ] grandest, most awe inspiring of all processes in nature?...If he could do this, he would have powers almost unlimited and supernatural... He could cause planes to collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light. He could originate and develop life in all its infinite forms....[Such powers] would place him beside his creator, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny. 16
We see that Tesla is asking a question, speculating, searching for an answer. If Tesla had developed free energy sources or learned how to manipulate space time and gravity, during the time of his most public and productive years, (up until about 1920), he would have had answers to those questions.
Tesla's most misunderstood invention is popularly known as the "Death Ray". It was simply a particle beam weapon which he proposed in 1937 and was fabricated under contracts with Alcoa Aluminum and the English and Italian governments. 17 It used electrostatic propulsion techniques and similar devices are being developed today by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and the US Army Strategic Defense Command. 18
So we see that mankind has not yet harnessed the infinite power of the universe as envisioned by Nikola Tesla. The question remains, why not?
Free energy devices, if they are feasible, are not about smaller
faster microcircuits or a bigger better mouse traps. This is a
technology which may revolutionize the socio-economic status quo on planet Earth. At this moment the big pie is unevenly divided. One quarter of the population on this rock, the third stone from the sun, consumes three quarters of the yearly resource output. As one can easily deduce, from a brief study of world affairs, there are about three billion people who have just about had it with this scenario. There are wars starvation and strife in every nook and cranny of the planet. So what do we do about it?
Spaceship Earth Needs A Flight Plan
Either we divide the pie more evenly or we make the pie larger. The first option requires that our standard of living must fall so that the standard of living in the third world may rise. The second option allows us to maintain our standard of living while we help raise the standard of living of under privileged nations. This we must do. It is our destiny. It is our responsibility. It is our final test.
Thirty thousand people starve to death every day on this planet, most of them are children. Nations fight nations, war is part of our lives. What drives our economy in the western world, allows us to enjoy a high standard of living, a life of leisure compared to our neighbors south of the imaginary line called a border? Many answers both economic, social, political, and spiritual can be given. We do know that the standard of living that a nation enjoys is directly related energy consumption.
Energy drives the economies of nations and Tesla's life long goal was to make electric power equally available to all people any where on this planet. He continued to promote his plan for the wireless transmission of power in the yearly interviews he gave on his birthday as late as 1940. 19 Electrical power allows on site processing of raw materials. Electrical power can run pumps from water wells in areas affected by drought. Electrical power delivered to the poverty stricken areas of the world can make the pie larger, can help bring about the needed economic equality which is our birth right.
Why hasn't power been made equally available to all people and
nations? Why haven't the much touted free energy devices described by Tom Bearden, John Bedini, Bruce DePalma, and others ever materialized?
Perhaps because "easy things are seldom done for the same reason that impossible things are rarely done: no one will pay for anything believed to be easy or impossible". 20 Perhaps because when we talk about power there is more there than one would initially visualize.
What we are talking about is personal power, national power, planetary power, karmic power and the power of love.
The sages tell us that in order to enjoy power we have to let go of
power, to overcome ourselves. As an example this author can describe one of his recent experiences. After a very successful symposium celebrating the 100th year after Nikola Tesla arrived in the United States 21, a non profit corporation, 501(c)(3), was formed specifically to encourage and pursue research into the inventions and discoveries of Nikola Tesla. Two years later, after a second symposium, several of the founding members approached the board of directors with a proposal to validate Tesla's claim that wireless transmission of power was possible. Board members suggested that permission be obtained from the
FCC, an environmental impact statement be filed with the EPA, and we should go form "our own non profit corporation". 22 It was also decided that since there was no procedure to cover research, the organization could not be involved.
Another goal of the organization had been to establish a museum to be named the Nikola Tesla Museum of Science and Technology. We proposed that since 60 -70 billion dollars are given away to non profit organizations annually, we had as good a chance as any other organization for obtaining funding, for a museum or research. We reasoned that:
"Since only 16% of the museums in this country are science
museums, this museum in honor of Nikola Tesla will help educate the public in technological areas. With the need for economic
revitalization of industry in Colorado, 1986is the time to begin
supporting the scientific education of our region. With the current
statistics showing that the United States is falling behind the world
technologically, the effort to educate the public is becoming more
important, and the surge of public awareness of Nikola Tesla's
inventions makes him an appropriate namesake for a science and
technology museum." 23
The board moved to table our proposal indefinitely.
What had happened? Of the 15 - 20 people that had started the
organization only four remained as part of the governing body. Three of those members were opposed to research. The collective mind of the board of directors had become the antithesis of the momentum Tesla had gained in his lifetime. Unlike the independent inventor and businessman, the board was now composed of members who were bureaucrats and paper pushers for Fortune 500 companies. Tesla was a vegetarian, the board members all ate meat. Tesla did not ask for permission to be inventive and strike out on bold new adventures, the board needed approval from higher sources. The dichotomies were endless.
Tesla's visions have been delayed for 89 years. The squabbling
started with Thomas Edison, J.P. Morgan and Nikola Tesla himself. 24 It continues to this day. Perhaps the reason for the delay of wireless power transmission or free energy devices lies even deeper within the human psyche. Is it possible that we could compare the Tesla story to a biblical story? Bruce Gordan thinks so. In Gordan's analysis Tesla's attempt at building a prototype magnifying transmitter parallels Genesis 11:1-9. 25
"The message; human curiosity and technological derring-do makes God nervous; God demolishes project, confounds language". Gordan further outlines the the scenario as follows:
BIBLE STORY TESLA TALE
Human Efforts Tesla Projects
Tower of Babel Wardenclyffe Tower
God Money (J.P. Morgan)
Demolition and Confounding to maintain Withdrawal of Morgan's
Status Quo of God drunk on power above, Financial Support and
humanity groveling in ignorance below. subsequent suppression of
Tesla's work in orthodox science & engineering circles
Perpetuation of mediocre technology for energy generation, storage, distribution, to maintain favorable cash flow for existing system for energy management by forcing continued combustion
of scarce fuels, keep consumers, paying, paying, paying......
"When everything is perfect, the right time shows up." 26 This is
equivalent to saying, "Absolute knowledge in the hands of one whose heart is not yet tender, would be a terrible weapon. 27 We might postulate that technological developments do not occur until
the planet is ready. The recent examination of the theory of Gaia
credits the Earth with an intelligence. "Thousands of years ago, by
means of seeing, sorcerers became aware that the Earth was sentinent and that its awareness could affect the awareness of humans." 28 By implication of reciprocity the reverse could be true. The group or collective unconscious is still struggling with the result of quantum and relativity theory. We as a race were ready for nuclear power, every thing was perfect and the right time showed up. Soon we will have put the technology to good use or abandon it to insure our survival as a species.
SO WHAT DO YOU DO ABOUT IT
FREE ENERGY: CREATING AN IDEA WHOSE TIME HAS COME
Wireless transmission of power and free energy have not happened yet, perhaps we aren't ready, perhaps the Earth isn't ready. Pogo said it best, " we have met the enemy and it is us." In the Jungian view of collective unconscious, things happen when the time is right, we get what we agree to. We need a flight plan. And that plan must realize that,
WHEN THE POWER OF LOVE
THE LOVE OF POWER
THERE WILL BE
[Source; Girls Lavatory, Boulder High School, Boulder, Colorado]
Described as "Post Industrial, neo-technical, teen-age graffiti."
"So astounding are the facts in this connection, that it
would seem as though the Creator, himself had electrically
designed this planet...."
Nikola Tesla describing what is now known as Schumann
Resonance (7.8 Hz) in "The Transmission of Electrical Energy
Without Wires As A Means Of Furthering World Peace",
Electrical World And Engineer, January 7, 1905, PP 21-24.
1. Ratzlaff, John, Tesla Said, Tesla Book Company, PO Box
1649, Greenville, TX 75401, 1984.
2. Yogananda, Paramahansa, Autobiography of a Yogi, Self
Realization Fellowship,, 3880 San Rafael Ave., Los Angeles,
CA 90065, 1985.
3. Cheney, Margaret, Man Out of Time, Prentice Hall, 1981.
4. Hunt, Inez and Draper. Wanetta, W., Lightning In His
Hand, The Life Story Of Nikola Tesla, Omni Publications,
Hawthorne, CA, 1981.
5. O'Neal, John, J., Prodigal Genius, The Life Of Nikola
Tesla, Ives Washington, Inc., 1944.
6. Anderson, Leland, personal communication. See also
Anderson, L.I., and Ratzlaff, J.T., Dr. Nikola Tesla
Bibliography, Ragusan Press, 936 Industrial Avenue, Palo
Alto, CA 94303, 1979.
7. Nikhilananda, Swami, Vivekananda, The Yogas and Other
Works, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, New York, 1973.
8. Nikhilananda, Swami.
9. Dobson, John, personal communication.
7. Dobson, John, Advaita Vedanta and Modern Science, Vedanta
Book Center, 5423 S. Hyde Park, Chicago, IL 60615, 1979.
10. Nikhilananda, Swami.
11. Burke, Marie Louise, Swami Vivekananda in the West, New
Discoveries, The World Teacher, Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati,
India, 1985, p. 500
12. Grotz, T., "Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the
Earth's Schumann Cavity Waveguide", Proceedings of the Third
International New Energy Technology Symposium/Exhibition,
June 25th-28th, 1988, Hull, Quebec, Planetary Association for
Clean Energy, 191 Promenade du Portage/600, Hull, Quebec J8X
13. From the personal collection of L. Anderson.
14. Russell, Lao. personal communication.
15. The University of Science and Philosophy, Swannanoa,
Waynesboro, VA 22980, (703) 942-5161.
16. First written by Tesla on May 13, 1907, for the "Actors
Fair Fund", text transcribed from an A.L.S. in the
collections of the Bakken Library of Electricity in Life.
The article later appeared in the "New York American", July
6, 1930, pg. 10.
17. Tesla, Nikola, The New Art of Projecting Concentrated
Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media, Proceedings of
the Tesla Centennial Symposium, Grotz, T. & Rauscher, E.,
18. Turchi, P.J.,Conte, D.,Seiler, S., Electrostatic
Acceleration of Microprojectiles to Ultrahypervelocities,
"Proceedings of the Seventh Pulsed Power Conference", June
12th-14th, Monterey, California, Jointly Sponsored by the
DOD, DOE, and the IEEE Electron Devices Society.
19. "Death Ray for Planes", New York Times, September 20,
20. Pawlicki, T.B., Exploring Hyperspace, 848 Fort Street,
Victoria, B.C., Canada, electronic book on floppy disk, 1988,
(Log onto the TESLA BBS at (719) 486-2775 for copy of ASCII
21. Broad, William J., "Tesla a Bizarre Genius, Regains Aura
of Greatness", New York Times, Aug. 28th, 1984
22. El-Kareh, E., Elswick, S., memo, 1987.
23. Grotz, T., & Sheppard, J., The Nikola Tesla Museum of
Science and Technology submitted to the Board of Directors of
the International Tesla Society, December 12th, 1986.
[Available as an ASCII text file on the TESLA BBS (719) 486-
24. Cheney, Margaret, Tesla, Man Out of Time, Prentice Hall
Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981.
25. Gordan, Bruce, private communication, 1988.
26. Arguelles, Jose & Lloydine, personal communication.
27. Hercules, Michael, The Circle of Love, published by the
28. Castenada, Carlos, The Power of Silence, Further Lessons
of don Jaun, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1987, Pg. 120.
FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT TESLA
TESLA BBS: This is a full featured computer Bulletin Board Service for access to information about current research and the life and times of Nikola Tesla. A subsection of the Colorado Mountain College BBS, it may be contacted using a computer and 300/1200/2400 baud modems at (719) 486-2775.
The Tesla Memorial Society The Tesla Coil Builders Association
% Nicholas Kosanovich % Harry Goldman
453 Martin Road RD #6 Box 181
Lackawanna, NY 14218 Glenns Falls, NY 12801
(716) 822-0281 (518) 792-1003
The Tesla Book Company High Voltage Press
PO Box 1649 PO Box 532
Greenville, TX 75401 Claremont, CA 91711
Mr. Toby Grotz, President, Wireless Engineering, is an electrical
engineer and has 16 years experience in the field of geophysics,
aerospace and industrial research and design. While working for the Geophysical Services Division of Texas Instruments and at the
University of Texas at Dallas, Mr. Grotz was introduced to and worked with the geophysical concepts which are of importance to the wireless transmission of power.
As a Senior Engineer at Martin Marietta, Mr. Grotz designed and
supervised the construction of industrial process control systems and designed and built devices and equipment for use in research and development and for testing space flight hardware.
Mr. Grotz also worked for the public utility industry installing
mini computer based pollutant measuring data acquisition systems in fossil fuel power plants and as a results engineer in a nuclear power plant. Mr. Grotz organized and chaired the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium and was president of the International Tesla Society, a not for profit corporation formed as a result the first symposium.
As Project Manager for Project Tesla, Mr. Grotz aided in the design and construction of a recreation of the equipment Nikola Tesla used for wireless transmission of power experiments in 1899 in Colorado Springs. Mr. Grotz received his B.S.E.E. from the
University of Connecticut in 1973.
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