What is the Jet Stream
The jet stream is a river of wind that blows
horizontally through the upper layers of the troposphere, generally from
west to east, at an altitude of 20,000 - 50,000 feet (6,100 - 9,144 meters),
or about 7 miles (11 kilometers) up.
A jet stream develops where air masses of differing temperatures meet.
The jet stream is a current of fast moving air found in the upper levels of
the atmosphere. This rapid current is typically thousands of kilometers long, a
few hundred kilometers wide, and only a few kilometers thick. Jet streams are
usually found somewhere between 10-15 km (6-9 miles) above the earth's surface.
JET STREAM ANALYSIS
The 200 and 300-millibar charts are important to forecasting for several
reasons. The upper level winds are the "steering current" for mid-latitude
cyclones and thunderstorms. If the upper level winds are weak, storm systems and
thunderstorms will tend to move slower than when the upper level winds were
strong. It is the jet stream that powers the upper level winds.
El Nino; Hello, La Nina
The El Nino
weather pattern that helped stymie hurricane development last year is
fading and could be replaced by conditions that favor hurricane
Cold (La Nina) Episodes in the Tropical Pacific
Warm --El Nino (EN) +Southern Oscillation (SO) ENSO Episodes in
the Tropical Pacific
Warming Atmosphere Expands Tropics
The earth's four jet streams mark the
boundaries of regional climates. In the Northern and Southern
Hemispheres, these rivers of high-speed wind persist at the border of
warm, tropical air and its cooler counterpart toward the poles. The jet
streams push weather across the globe, blessing some areas with abundant
rain and desertifying less fortunate regions. Now, new satellite data
reveals that the atmosphere is warming most strongly in such boundary
regions and potentially shifting regions of wet and dry.
Tropics May be Expanding
Researchers say the apparent north-south
widening of the tropics amounts to 2 degrees of latitude or 140 miles. But they
do not know yet if the tropical expansion was triggered by natural climate
variation or by human-caused phenomena such as depletion of the atmosphere’s
ozone layer or global warming due to the greenhouse effect.
The tropics may be expanding due to climate change
“It’s a big deal. The tropics may be expanding and getting larger,” says study
co-author Thomas Reichler, an assistant professor of meteorology at the
University of Utah. “If this is true, it also would mean that subtropical
deserts are expanding into heavily populated midlatitude regions.”
Jet streams off track, may affect weather patterns
Over the past 27 years, the high-speed air currents that steer storms to
temperate zones in both hemispheres have shifted about one degree toward
the poles, or about 70 miles, scientists estimate in a paper published
today in the journal Science.
"This gives direct, observational evidence of massive atmospheric
circulation changes," said University of Washington climate scientist
Qiang Fu, the paper's lead author.
Jet Stream Shift Is Expanding the Earth's Tropics and Deserts
The movement has allowed the subtropics to edge toward populated areas,
including the American Southwest, southern Australia and the Mediterranean
basin. In those places, the lack of precipitation already is a worry.
"The Mediterranean is one region that models consistently show
drying in the future. That could be very much related to this pattern that
we are seeing in the atmosphere,
nighttime, low-level jet streams form
A fast-moving river of air known as a "jet"
sometimes forms at about 1,000 feet above the ground after sunset.
On a clear evening the atmosphere cools down.
And if conditions are calm, a stable temperature "inversion" sets up
where cool air aloft, which is heavier than warm air, sinks to the
ground and any leftover warm air sits on top of it. The stable air in
an inversion acts like a nearly solid object and allows the air above
it to flow rapidly past the inversion like wind blowing over water.
Forces behind Devastating 'Dust Bowl' Drought Explained
"The 1930s drought was the major climatic event in the nation’s
history," explains lead study author Siegfried Schubert of the NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center. "Just beginning to understand what occurred
is really critical to understanding future droughts and the links to
global climate change issues we’re experiencing today."
Faster Atmospheric Warming in Subtropics Pushes Jet Streams
"The jet streams mark the edge of the tropics, so if they are moving
poleward that means the tropics are getting wider," Wallace said. "If they
move another 2 to 3 degrees poleward in this century, very dry areas such as
the Sahara Desert could nudge farther toward the pole, perhaps by a few
A Regression Model for Annual Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin
Based on Solar Irradiance--An excerpt
The relation is associated with the amount of
solar energy available for absorption by the tropical Pacific Ocean and the
subsequent effects this stored energy has on mid-latitude atmospheric
circulation and precipitation occurrence. The suggested physical mechanism for
this relation includes varying solar-energy input that creates ocean-temperature
anomalies in the tropical ocean. The temperature anomalies are transported
northward by ocean currents to locations where ocean and atmospheric processes
can modify jet-stream patterns. These patterns affect jet-stream location and
characteristics downwind over North America, which affect the occurrence of
precipitation and, ultimately, the amount of streamflow in the upper Mississippi
A transition from ENSO-neutral to La Niña conditions is possible within the next
continued in the tropical Pacific during May 2007, with average to below-average
sea surface temperatures (SSTs) extending from the date line to the west coast
of South America
El Niño, La Niña Rearrange South Pole Sea Ice
Scientists have been mystified by observations that when sea ice
on one side of the South Pole recedes, it advances farther out on the other
side...this is the result of El Niños and La Niñas
driving changes in the subtropical jet stream, which then alter the
path of storms that move sea ice around the South Pole.
The results have important implications for understanding global
climate change better because sea ice contributes to the Earth's
General Meteorological Background on Jet Streams
As air races through the sinuous jet-stream pattern, there are
some parts of the pattern where air tends to converge, thereby increasing the total
weight of air above the earth's surface in those areas, which implies higher
pressure at the earth's surface below. Moreover, convergence of air within
the jet stream tends to force air beneath the jet stream downward. As air
descends in the atmosphere, the pressure on it increases and
compresses it, thereby warming the sinking air, which evaporates
any existing clouds or prevents clouds from forming in the first place. Such
areas generally experience clear weather.
The northernmost jet is called the polarfront jet (it is usually located over the northern states), the southernmost one is called the subtropical jet (the latter usually hangs around the southern
border of the United States). Sometimes there is another jet inbetween. The height of each jet (and the break in the tropopause height) depends on latitude. The subtropical jet is
higher (often much higher, 10-16 km) than the polarfront jet (7-12 km).
Perhaps the most familiar is the polar-front jet stream. As
noted earlier, the polar front is the boundary between polar and mid-latitude
air. In winter this boundary may extend equatorward to 30 , while in summer it retreats to 50 -60. Winter
fronts also are distinguished by stronger temperature contrasts than summer
fronts. Thus, jet streams are located more equatorward in winter and are
more intense during that time. Such streams are generally strongest east of
major continents, sometimes exceeding 75 metres per second.
The maps below are polar views of the Northern and
Southern Hemispheres. They show the general position of jet streams during
January and July.
Stratospheric Circulation Study-- Role of the Subtropical Jet Stream in
During the late winter months when the subtropical jet stream
reaches its maximum intensity, confluence patterns develop between the
subtropical and polar-front jet streams.
Nature of Climate Variability
The movement of weather systems along the jet stream determines
the distribution of precipitation about the globe. Climate variability results
from a long-term shift in circulation patterns of the jet stream. As the
circulation patterns shift, precipitation and temperature patterns also shift.
Devils Lake has an enhanced sensitivity to long-term shifts in global
circulation patterns as the level of the lake depends on many years of
antecedent precipitation, runoff, and evaporation
Climate Change Science
The regional patterns of change are
also shown on this page; high-latitude winters will warm faster due to feedback
from the melting of sea-ice, and there will be some ocean areas where rises are
quite limited. Rainfall changes will be most marked in tropical regions. These
patterns, and the global mean rises, are not very different from those
previously predicted with flux-adjusted models. Using the new model we see
relatively large decreases in rainfall over Amazonia and parts of Africa
CO2 'highest for 650,000
Current levels of the greenhouse gases carbon
dioxide and methane in the atmosphere are higher now than at any time in the
past 650,000 years.
That is the conclusion of new European studies looking at ice taken from
3km below the surface of Antarctica.
Carbon dioxide and the carbon cycle
Currently, about 6.5 billion tonnes of carbon (as carbon dioxide) are
emitted each year during the combustion of fossil fuels and 1-2 billion
tonnes per year from land clearing.
About 3 billion tonnes of the carbon (as carbon dioxide) stays in the
atmosphere. The ocean takes up just over 2 billion tonnes. Terrestrial sinks
such as growing forests, which remove carbon from the air and store it, take
up the remaining 2-3 billion tonnes.
Carbon dioxide, CO2, is one of two oxides of
and it is the principal product oxide of carbon formed from the compustion of
hydrocarbon fuels. Carbon dioxide is the focus of public concern in recent years
due to the increasing concentration of this gas in the atmosphere as a result of
the combustion of fossel fuels. The gas is implicated in the
A minor but very important component of the atmosphere, carbon dioxide traps
CO2, Methane and Temperature-- More Insights from the Dome
Concordia and Vostok Ice Cores
Climate alarmists have long contended that the historical and
still-ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content -
aided and abetted by the historical increase in atmospheric methane
concentration - will lead to dangerous global warming that could rival
temperature increases experienced during prior glacial-to-interglacial
transitions. Now, new light has been shed on the subject
Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide
A review of the research literature concerning the environmental
consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the
conclusion that increases during the 20th Century have produced no deleterious
effects upon global weather, climate, or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide
has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates. Predictions of harmful
climatic effects due to future increases in minor greenhouse gases like CO2
are in error and do not conform to current experimental knowledge.
Faster carbon dioxide emissions will overwhelm capacity of land
and ocean to absorb carbon
One in a new generation of computer climate models that include the
effects of Earth's carbon cycle indicates there are limits to the
planet's ability to absorb increased emissions of carbon dioxide.
If current production of carbon from fossil fuels continues
unabated, by the end of the century the land and oceans will be less
able to take up carbon than they are today, the model indicates.
Seas absorb half of carbon dioxide pollution
The world's oceans have soaked up half of the carbon dioxide pumped
into the air by human activities since the beginning of the
industrial age, according to new two studies. The gas is acidifying
the seas and may harm marine life, the authors warn.
Tracing the Role of Carbon Dioxide in Global Warming
When atmospheric CO2 content
increases, the ocean's absorption of it increases. In the case of
fossil-fuel-caused increases, because fossil fuel contains no radiocarbon,
the ocean is absorbing CO2 that consists primarily of 12C,
a weak acid. A more acidic ocean tends to reject carbon in all its isotopic
Health Effects of Air Pollution: The Human Body Under Attack
The human body is an amazingly complex
defense and self-healing system.
JUMP IN CO2 LEVELS
finds huge jump in gas that causes global warming
Climate experts cautioned Monday that a reported consecutive
annual jump in the quantity of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere might be an
anomaly, without ruling out it was a sign of rapid global warming.
buildup accelerating in atmosphere
Carbon dioxide, the gas largely blamed for global warming, has
reached record-high levels in the atmosphere after growing at an accelerated
pace in the past year, say scientists monitoring the sky from this 2-mile-high
station atop a Hawaiian volcano.
'reaching danger levels'
On present trends, Sir David said, the world
was just 60 years from triggering an irreversible climate disaster.
Methane's Impacts on Climate Change May Be Twice Previous Estimates
We need to look at the GHGs when they
are emitted at Earth's surface, instead of looking at the GHGs themselves
after they have been mixed into the atmosphere.
At times, I thought I was the only
person on the planet interested in the outcome. In case you've
forgotten the results (!), the best guess as to methane's role in
global warming is 15 - 18% of the effect.
KILLER IN OUR MIDST
Methane Catastrophes in Earth's
Past and Near Future
contribution to Greenhouse Gases 2005
Energy-related activities were
the primary sources of U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, accounting
for 86 percent of total emissions on a carbon equivalent basis in 2003.
Trends in US
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks
Overall, total U.S. emissions
have risen by 13.3 percent from 1990 to 2003
Arctic alert on global warming
Global warming is heating the Arctic at a
rapid pace - with impacts that could range from the disappearance of polar
bears' summer habitat by the century's end to a damaging rise in sea levels
Science in Space 5
The Earth is
not just a body of rock, and geology is not just about rocks. When you study
rocks enough, eventually the questions you ask and the answers you find lead
upward into the atmosphere and beyond.
Science in Space 6
U.S. government's Earth Resources Observation Systems or EROS
center is the clearinghouse for Landsat imagery. They've got stuff ranging from
utilitarian—pictures of your region with no annotations, for instance—to
Bush Administration-- Carbon Dioxide Not a Pollutant
Had the Bush administration decided that carbon dioxide is a pollutant
and harmful, it could have required expensive new pollution controls on new
cars and perhaps on power plants, which together are the main sources of
so-called greenhouse gases.
Great White Hope Wind Energy – Electricity Forever
If only one fifth of good wind
energy locations were made use of, the worldwide electricity demand could be met
seven times: Scientists have found out by extrapolation of data. They produced a
which shows potential on- and offshore locations, concluding that especially
locations on the shores of the North Sea (those are partially already
developed), the North American West and East Coasts, the Great Lakes area
and Tasmania in Australia are promising.
Energy Economic Myths and Facts
Increasingly, opponents of wind power resort to repeating
common myths about the technology and its impacts.
Vertical Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere
The atmosphere has a vertical thermal structure as well as a vertical
The atmosphere has been divided into layers according to the behavior of temperatures in their relationship to altitude.
The eleven most abundant gases found in the Earth's lower
atmosphere by volume. Of the gases listed, nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are extremely important to the health
of the Earth's biosphere.
to the Ionosphere
The ionosphere is that part of the upper atmosphere where free
electrons occur in sufficient density to have an appreciable influence on the
propagation of radio frequency electromagnetic waves.
Facts About the Ionosphere
Invisible layers of ions and electrons are suspended in the
Earth's atmosphere above about 60 kilometers in altitude.
Atmosphere and the Earth-Space Interface
Solar activity such as flares and coronal mass ejections often
produce large variations in the particle and electromagnetic radiation incident
upon the earth. Ionospheric storms have important terrestrial consequences such
as disrupting satellite communications and interrupting the flow of electrical
energy over power grids.
Time GAIM Results
Real time Graphic Maps and Electron Density Slices
of GIM and Calibration
The accuracy of the GIM solutions can be assessed by direct
comparisons with independent vertical TEC measurements
Ionograms are recorded tracings of reflected high frequency
maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) are produced in real-time
These maps are also used to monitor ionospheric
weather, and to nowcast ionospheric storms that often
occur responding to activities in solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere as well
Data from over 100+ continuously operating GPS receivers in a
global network are being used to produce global maps of the ionosphere's total
electron content (TEC).
Features of Earth's Ionosphere Captured in GIM
A representative global map of vertical total electron content
(TEC) is shown here plotted as a function of local time and geographic latitude.
the combined disturbance field from electrical currents
flowing in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, which induce electrical
currents in the sea and ground
The Schumann Resonances are quasi-standing electromagnetic
waves that exist in the Earth's 'electromagnetic' cavity (the space between the
surface of the Earth and the Ionosphere)
is a Schumann Resonance?
Believe it or not, the Earth behaves like an enormous electric
circuit. The atmosphere is actually a weak conductor and if there were no
sources of charge, its existing electric charge would diffuse away in about 10
had spent many hours hiking the Sedona outback with simple electronic equipment
and a compass.
Resonances,Geomagnetic Reversals, Brain states
Just as a tuning fork has natural frequencies for sound,
the planet Earth has natural frequencies, called Schumann resonances, for
Between the nearly perfectly conducting terrestrial surface
and ionosphere, a resonating cavity is formed. Broadband electromagnetic
impulses, like those from lightning flashes, fill this cavity, and create
globally the so-called Schumann resonances
Resonance, Human Chakra, Music and Healing
Imagine the natural
peoples-original culture peoples-- being exposed at Power Spots to Schumann
Resonance where it has been amplified. The healing arts as well as music can be
linked to these natural vibrations.
wind squeezes some of earth's atmosphere into
Researchers using NASA's Polar spacecraft have found the first
direct evidence that bursts of energy from the Sun can cause oxygen and other
gases to gush from Earth's upper atmosphere into space.
Earth Changes Affect YOU
It seems that as our planet goes
through changes in magnetics, and frequency, many people are feeling (and not
understanding) the effects of the changes as our physical bodies attempt to tune
to the changing frequency of the planet.
Our brains are extremely vulnerable to any technology which sends out ELF
waves, because they immediately start resonating to the outside signal by a
kind of tuning-fork effect. Puharich experimented discovering that
A) 7.83 Hz (earth's pulse rate) made a person feel good, producing an
B) 10.80 Hz causes riotious behaviour and
C) 6.6 Hz causes depression.
passing through the Photon Belt
Gregg Braden is currently traveling around the
United States and in the media, telling of the scientific proof of the Earth
passing through the Photon Belt and the slowing of the Earths rotation.
American Indian Prophecies
A Prophecy for