Grandmother Water

Water Energy Prayer


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Water is much more than we know. Many scientists and leading edge researchers, from around the planet, are continuing to report, that there is much more to know about this ancient substance that supports and sustains our lives. This information is leading us to alter our perceptions, and thereby our relationships and responsibilities, to this miraculous element.


Water's Remarkable Expression

New research into the nature of water reveals an infinite variety of form and structure. These varieties are reflected in the forms of the crystals of frozen water. Masaru Emoto, a Japanese researcher, in his groundbreaking book, Messages from Water and in his most recent book, Messages from Water Part 2, explains how he freezes different samples of water and then photographs their crystals.

Miraculous Messages from Water

Water has a very important message for us.  Water is telling us to take a much deeper look at ourselves.  When we do look at our selves through the mirror of water, the message becomes amazingly, crystal, clear.  We know that human life is directly connected to the quality of our water, both within and all around us.

The Earth's Water Budget

Water covers 70% of the earth's surface, but it is difficult to comprehend the total amount of water when we only see a small portion of it. The following diagram displays the volumes of water contained on land, in oceans, and in the atmosphere

Water Page Resources: The Importance of Water Conservation

Fresh, clean water is a limited resource. While most of the planet is covered in water, it is salt water that can only be consumed by humans and other species after undergoing desalination, which is an expensive process. Occurrences such as droughts further limit access to clean and fresh water, meaning people need to take steps to reduce water use and save as much water as possible. In some areas of the world, access to water is limited due to contamination. People who have access to fresh water can take steps to limit their use of water to avoid waste.

(link provided by Ms Plasse's science class at Green Mountain CS)


The Battle for Water

We are taught in school that the Earth has a closed hydrologic system; water is continually being recycled through rain and evaporation and none of it leaves the planet’s atmosphere. Not only is there the same amount of water on the Earth today as there was at the creation of the planet, it’s the same water.

Peak Water-- Aquifers and Rivers Are Running Dry. How Three Regions Are Coping

That the news is familiar makes it no less alarming: 1.1 billion people, about one-sixth of the world's population, lack access to safe drinking water. Aquifers under Beijing, Delhi, Bangkok, and dozens of other rapidly growing urban areas are drying up. The rivers Ganges, Jordan, Nile, and Yangtze — all dwindle to a trickle for much of the year. In the former Soviet Union, the Aral Sea has shrunk to a quarter of its former size, leaving behind a salt-crusted waste.

Bio-Magnetism and Water

Health and aging depend on the quality, content and structure of the water in our body. Since our body is 70% water, a cell is 70% water, and the DNA in the cell is 70% water, then the water we put into our body must be significant in how we age and how well our body can maintain a stable internal environment to keep disease-producing influences from destroying it.

Don't Drink the Water

This is a warning you are used to hearing when you travel abroad, but now it has hit us at home.

According to the Washington, D.C. based Environmental Working Group (EWG), manufacturers dumped more than one billion pounds of toxic chemicals into rivers, lakes and other bodies of water between 1990 and 1994. EWG also estimates that manufacturers contributed about 450 million additional pounds via sewage

In the Matter of Water

Next to Oxygen, no other substance is more critical to human survival than water. Today we are witnessing the emergence of critical shortages in sustainable supplies of potable drinking water. The evidence that such shortages are becoming a permanent fixture in our lives is provided by the increasing sums being invested in owning and controlling the sources of potable water by multi-national conglomerates. The race for control of potable water supplies has begun in earnest.

The Power of Water Are It

Our thinking apparatus runs on water. Our physical bodies are two-thirds water, so obviously its qualities can heal or harm us. We now learn that water seems to remember and later convey "information". No wonder the most dynamic frontier in science today is water research.

Structured Water as an Alternative Medicine


Structured-enhanced-clustered-altered-magnetized-sacred-oxygenated-memory: all these terms have emerged in recent years to describe something we always thought was just water.


What do the currents of the ocean really look like


Well let's start by saying that they are not the nice steady currents of the books and school atlas. It would be better to start by thinking of a weather map with high and low pressure regions acting like eddies and pushing the clouds around in a fairly random manner. This is especially true of the deep ocean (say below 1500m) where the mixing due to the eddy field is much stronger than any mean current.


The Major Ocean Currents

As the wind blows across the surface of a body of water, an amazing thing happens: the water begins to move. First, small capillary waves are formed; tiny ripples of waves which appear like a brushstroke across the water's surface. If the wind continues to blow, larger waves appear, momentum is transferred to the water, and the water begins to move.


Mean Circulation and Transports in the Atlantic


A major role of the oceans in the coupled climate system is the meridional transport of heat and freshwater and the subsequent exchange with the atmosphere through air-sea fluxes. Hydrographic sections across a selected few latitudes in the Atlantic sector (such as 26 °N) provide us with "snapshots" of these meridional transports.



The Caribbean Current

The Caribbean Current transports significant amounts of water northwestward through the Caribbean Sea and into the Gulf of Mexico, via the Yucatan Current. The source water for the Caribbean Current is from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean via the North Equatorial, North Brazil, and Guiana Currents.


Currents in a Cul-de-Sac


We are all familiar with cul-de-sacs— neighborhoods where you have to turn you car around to get out. The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean is similar to a cul-de-sac.


Could the Atlantic current switch off?


The Atlantic Ocean overturning that maintains Europe’s moderate climate has slowed by 30 per cent according to scientists from the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton


Could the Atlantic current switch off?(2)


Climate models predict that temperatures in the UK could drop by as much as four degrees centigrade if this current were to stop. The models show the temperature drop would occur about a decade or two after a slowdown in the circulation.


Record Arctic sea ice loss

NASA researchers using Earth observation satellites are reporting a significant loss in Arctic sea ice this year. On 21 September sea ice extent dropped to 2.05 million square miles, the lowest extent yet recorded in the satellite record. Incorporating the 2005 minimum using satellite data going back to 1978, with a projection for ice growth in the last few days of this September, brings the estimated decline in Arctic sea ice to 8.5 percent per decade over the 27 year satellite record.

Water mass transports and transformations in the North Atlantic

In the North Atlantic, large-scale meridional transports can be related to water mass transformation through air-sea heat and freshwater exchange.  These transports clearly show the poleward flow of warm, salty waters and the equatorward return flow of cold, fresh water at high density.

Study Shows Southern Ocean Saturated with Carbon Dioxide

The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is so loaded with carbon dioxide that it can barely absorb any more, so more of the gas will stay in the atmosphere to warm up the planet, scientists reported Thursday.

The phenomenon wasn't expected to be apparent for decades..."We thought we would be able to detect these only the second half of this century, say 2050 or so," she said. But data from 1981 through 2004 show the sink is already full of carbon dioxide. "So I find this really quite alarming."

Study Sheds Light On Earth’s CO2 Cycles, Possible Impacts Of Climate Change

A research team, including Kent State Professor of Geology Dr. Joseph Ortiz, tracing the origin of the large carbon dioxide increase in Earth’s atmosphere at the end of the last ice age has detected two ancient “burps” that originated from the deepest parts of the southern ocean around Antarctica.

“This is some of the clearest evidence yet that the enormous carbon release into the atmosphere during the last deglaciation was triggered by abrupt changes in deep ocean circulation,” Marchitto says.

Global warming - will we freeze?


What the experts are really saying

The engine that drives this conveyor is in the Arctic; surface sea water there is cooled by bitter winds, becomes denser, sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south - the return current of warm surface water is the Gulf Stream. But this sinking process can be disrupted when fresh water overlays the salty ocean water - fresh water from rain, rivers or melting ice; an increase in fresh water could slow down or even switch off the Gulf Stream. If it did, a 'what-if' experiment with the Hadley Centre computer model shows that the UK would cool by up to 5 °C, and it could happen quickly - in a matter of a decade or two. If it did happen, the disruption to society would be enormous. But will it happen?




Scripps-led Study Shows Climate Warming to Shrink Key Water Supplies around the World
Water from glaciers and snow storage reserves to dwindle in the decades ahead, affecting millions


The analysis first describes how water resource levels will change under global warming's influence and then depicts impacts on regions in the western United States, Europe, Canada, Asia and South America.


Seas absorb half of carbon dioxide pollution

The world's oceans have soaked up half of the carbon dioxide pumped into the air by human activities since the beginning of the industrial age, according to new two studies. The gas is acidifying the seas and may harm marine life, the authors warn.


Warming of the World Ocean

Data and Graphical Depiction - - Supplementary Material


Decrease in Atlantic circulation


They show that the amount of deep return flow seems to have gone down about 8 Sv (out of 25 Sv), and the amount of mid-ocean to surface transport has gone up by about the same amount. This corresponds to a roughly 30% apparent weakening in the so-called "Thermohaline Circulation". Since the surface flow is warmer than the deep flow, there is a consequent decrease in the northward heat flux of about 0.2 PW (or about 15%).


Saltier or not?

Record-high salinities have been observed over the past decade in the region where water from the Atlantic flows into the northern oceans; as a whole the northern North Atlantic has become significantly fresher (less salty) in recent decades. The amount of freshwater added in recent decades was much larger than previously assumed.  It is reasonable to assume that the freshwater input will continue to increase in the future because the earth is warming, causing increasing ice melt and increased precipitation (both over ocean and over land, which yields larger river runoff to the ocean). On the other hand, the subtropical waters can be expected to become saltier in the future, for the same reason.



Arctic could be ice-free in summer in 15 years

Recent melting of sea ice in the Arctic may lead to the lowest level yet of ocean ice cover in the Arctic this summer, resulting in drastic changes to the northern ecosystem, according to scientists meeting at a conference in Winnipeg this week.

More than 120 scientists from nearly a dozen nations are attending the meeting of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study.


Oceanic Acidity

“While we focus a great deal of attention on rising ocean temperatures and the bleaching incidents they cause in corals, we tend to overlook the other consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on our corals: decreases in ocean pH,” Langdon said. “Carbon dioxide in the ocean is creating a growingly acidic environment for corals, and this acidity could ultimately cause our reefs to waste away.”


Oceans may soon be more corrosive than when the dinosaurs died

Increased carbon dioxide emissions are rapidly making the world's oceans more acidic and, if unabated, could cause a mass extinction of marine life similar to one that occurred 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs disappeared.


La Niña


La Niña is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific, as compared to El Niño, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific

In the U.S., winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest.

At higher latitudes, El Niño and La Niña are among a number of factors that influence climate. However, the impacts of El Niño and La Niña at these latitudes are most clearly seen in wintertime. In the continental US, during El Niño years, temperatures in the winter are warmer than normal in the North Central States, and cooler than normal in the Southeast and the Southwest. During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest.


So Long, El Nino; Hello, La Nina


The El Nino weather pattern that helped stymie hurricane development last year is fading and could be replaced by conditions that favor hurricane formation.

Seeing Past the Edge

Technology by itself cannot be expected to improve the quality of our lives. Indeed, until we are willing to fundamentally alter the way we treat the planet and each other, our technologies may extinguish all life as we know it within the next 50 years. This is a bitter and sobering thought. We are running out of time.

Water Weight

Let us analyze some forces that may cause old Mother Earth to "slip a disk" (or a plate?)


This independent report, Evaluation of Erosion Hazards, provides a much-needed and valuable assessment of coastal erosion and the resulting loss of property along our Nation's ocean and Great Lakes shorelines.

One of the report's most sobering findings is that within the next 60 years approximately 25 percent of homes located within 500 feet of the coast (excluding those located in most urban centers) will fall victim to the effects of erosion.

Some quick water reminders

Water takes up seventy-five percent of the earth’s surface. However usable fresh water makes up a very small percentage, which makes fresh water to be a precious and valuable resource.

The Science & Technology of Water

Man uses water not only for drinking and cooking, but also for bathing, washing, laundering, heating, and air conditioning; for agriculture, raising stock and gardens; for industrial purposes, cooling, for water power and steam power; for fire protection; for disposal of wastes; and for recreational purposes such as swimming, fishing and boating.

An Overview of Water

I am a fifth and sixth grade science teacher.  I believe it is my duty to educate my students in acquiring enough knowledge to inform the public of the importance in keeping our water safe and clean in order to preserve the wildlife that thrive in our waterways.

Ocean Energy Report for 2005

Ocean energy technologies have been around for decades. But for a variety of reasons, including rising oil prices, technological advancements and the sheer grit of a handful of pioneer developers, ocean energy has made a huge splash in 2005. We'll list this year's ocean energy milestones and then discuss what needs to be done so the ocean energy industry keeps its momentum.

UN Report Ranks Nations' Water Quantity Quality

Included as part of the report's analysis is a ranking of over 180 countries and territories of the amount of renewable water available per capita in each area. This includes all of the water circulating on the surface, in the soil or deeper underground. Also ranked is the quality of the 180 countries' water. Figured into this ranking is the countries's ability and commitment to improve their situations.

Water scarcity.htm: A looming crisis?

The world's water crisis is simple to understand, if not to solve.

The amount of water in the world is finite. The number of us is growing fast and our water use is growing even faster.

Water Scarcity Could Affect Billions: Is This the Biggest Crisis of All?

Population growth, pollution and climate change, all accelerating, are likely to combine to produce a drastic decline in water supply in the coming decades, according to the World Water Development Report, published today. And of course that supply is already problematic for up to a third of the world's population.

Coal-fired power plants utilize significant quantities of both coal and water for generating electrical energy

Coal-fired power plants utilize significant quantities of both coal and water for generating electrical energy. For example, a 500 MW power plant burns approximately 250 tons per hour of coal while using over 12 million gallons per hour of water for cooling and other process requirements

EarthNews Radio: Ways to Save Water
The Color of Water -- A Guest Commentary
Take this quiz to test your knowledge of water conservation.
Water Use Calculator: Find out how much water you use at home.
WaterWiser Drip Calculator

The new water wars

But rain or not, the problem along the Missouri River is chronic. Routinely, there is not enough water in a system that gives priority to navigation. The Army Corps of Engineers interprets its Master Manual to say there must be sufficient water in the 732-mile stretch of lower river to maintain navigation, a criterion which in recent years has helped to keep the upper Missouri mighty dry.

The Color of Water -- An ENN Commentary

Our country is polarized over very basic issues: taxes; the size and role of government; religion and secular priorities. Yet at a time when many things are increasingly viewed through red or blue political glasses, we might take a lesson from recent polls that show the American people can sometimes be color-blind.

Safe Water: World Water Week

Can economic growth, sustainable development, improved public health and reduced poverty levels of underprivileged communities all come from a glass of clean drinking water?

Crisis on tap! Pollution and burgeoning populations stress earth's water resources

Earth gets one of its nicknames, the Blue Planet, from the way it looks from space. About 70 percent of the planet's surface is covered with water, a substance that known types of life can't do without. All told, the oceans, land, and atmosphere hold the equivalent of almost 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of liquid water. About 96.5 percent of that total is salty ocean, a little more than 2 percent of the total is locked up in ice, and a smidgen wafts as vapor in the atmosphere. That leaves just over 1 percent as water that's readily available for human use.

Future scarcity

An estimated third of the world's population currently lives in water-stressed countries. This is set to increase to two-thirds within 25 years.

Physics Chemistry of Sea Water.pdf


Q&A Ultraviolet Disinfection

Water , The Mother Within  Our Mother, Flowforms

Flowforms were first created by the keen observations of people deep in the realms of art, geometry and science. These were people who noted motions and patterns in nature and that such patterns could be described in consistent mathematical terms. The ripples and swirling eddies; patterns in wood and bone and muscle; seas of sand; chambers of seashells; and meanders of free-flowing streams all ‘spoke’ the same shapes.

1998 Year of the Ocean



New Study Reports Large-scale Salinity Changes in the Oceans


Perhaps the first scientist to have realized that permafrost and seafloor methane hydrate release may have played a role in the end-Permian extinction was Doug Erwin (1993).  Erwin indicated that methane and carbon dioxide (from both the oxidation of exposed continental shelf organic carbon and methane, "and possibly other sources") would have contributed to global warming and "possible oceanic anoxia".  What Erwin missed was the importance -- indeed, the indispensibility -- of the rapid increase of these gases for the transformation of global climate and marine chemistry. (The rate of release is crucial.)

Methane Burps Ticking Time Bomb

There are enormous quantities of naturally occurring greenhouse gasses trapped in ice-like structures in the cold northern muds and at the bottom of the seas. These ices, called clathrates, contain 3,000 times as much methane as is in the atmosphere.



What happened at the end of the Permian is long, long ago, but not far, far away. The catastrophic release of methane from the seafloor is not just something which was long ago. It can, and -- unless we change our way of dealing with our planet, and change it fast -- will happen again tomorrow.

Abrupt Climate Change

New Study Reports Large-scale Salinity Changes in the Oceans (graphics enlarged)


The Ocean's Role in Climate

Testimony to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation
July 18, 2000

Rate of Ocean Circulation Directly Linked to Abrupt Climate Change in North Atlantic Region

A new study strengthens evidence that the oceans and climate are linked in an intricate dance, and that rapid climate change may be related to how vigorously ocean currents transport heat from low to high latitudes.

Ocean Currents

Map of Earth's Currents

Thermohaline circulation

One extremely important attribute of thermohaline circulation is that it carries oxygenated water to the deep ocean. The polar seas (the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean) that produce the frigid water which drives the Great Ocean Conveyer are storm-swept, especially in winter. This turbulence oxygenates the water, and its frigidity (like a frigid can of soda) allows it to carry lots of dissolved gas. Descending to the ocean floor, this frigid water thereby oxygenates the deep sea. Without this input of highly oxygenated water, the deep ocean would become anoxic.

The North Atlantic Drift Current

Aptly named, the North Atlantic Drift Current (NADC) is a slow-moving body of water located between about 50°-64°N and 10°-30°W. NADC is also considered to be an extension of the North Atlantic Current. It is recognized as a shallow, widespread and variable wind-driven surface movement of warm water that covers a large part of the eastern subpolar North Atlantic and slowly spills into the Nordic Seas.

How does tsunami energy travel across the ocean and how far can tsunamis waves reach

The wave crests of a tsunami can be a thousand km (1500 miles) long, and from a few to a hundred kilometers (150 miles) or more apart as they travel across the ocean.

NOAA and Tsunamis

The speed at which tsunamis travel depends on the ocean depth. A tsunami can exceed 500 mph in the deep ocean but slows to 20 or 30 mph in the shallow water near land.

What is a mega-tsunami and can it happen today?

- No such event - a mega tsunami - has occurred in either the Atlantic or Pacific oceans in recorded history. NONE.

What are some of the largest historical tsunamis

The 1 April 1946 Aleutian Earthquake and Tsunami
The 4 November 1952 Kamchatka Earthquake and Tsunami
The 9 March 1957 Aleutian Earthquake and Tsunami
The 22 May 1960 Chilean Earthquake and Tsunami
The 28 March 1964 Alaska Earthquake and Tsunami

What determines how destructive a tsunami will be near the origin and at a distant shore

Even if a tsunami wave may have been 1 meter (3 1/3 ft) or less in the deep ocean, it may grow into a huge 30-35 meter (100-115 foot) wave when it sweeps over the shore.

Power From the Oceans

Wind energy industries are growing, and as we look for alternative power sources, the growth potential is through the roof.

Will Rising Seas Swamp Some Small Island States?

Small island nations meet in Mauritius from Jan. 10-14 for talks about threats including a creeping rise in sea levels blamed by most scientists on global warming.

Abyssal Storms

Until recently, ocean scientists thought of the deep ocean abyss as a dark, cold but serene place where small particles rained gently onto the ocean floor. However, instruments lowered to the sea floor to measure ocean motion or currents and resulting mobilization of bottom sediments detected a much more active environment. Scientists found that bottom currents and abyssal storms occasionally scour the ocean bottom, generating moving clouds of suspended sediment.


Water: Bringer of death, bringer of life

A wall of water caused the biggest natural disaster of 2004: now it is the turn of relief agencies and water professionals to make sure that 2005 does not see disease killing as many people as did that deadly wave.

Rising Seas Threaten Islands, Cities, Coasts

It sounds insignificant alongside the Indian Ocean tsunami, yet an almost imperceptible annual rise in the world's oceans may pose a huge threat to ports, coasts and islands by 2100.

Greenland Ice Cap Is Melting Fast

Greenland's cover of ice is melting ten times quicker than previously thought, an increase that could lead to floods across the world, scientists have found.

Greenland FACTS

The Greenland icecap contains 1/8th of the total global ice-mass

Greenland ice-melt 'speeding up'

Carl Boggild and his team have recorded falls as dramatic as 10 metres a year - in places the ice is dropping at a rate of one metre a month.

Greenland ice cap 'doomed to meltdown'

The Greenland ice sheet is all but doomed to melt away to nothing, according to a new modelling study. If it does melt, global sea levels will rise by seven metres, flooding most of the world's coastal regions.

Glaciers and Ice Sheets

Over 75% of the world's fresh water is presently locked up in these frozen reservoirs.


The total area of surface melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet for 2002 broke all known records for the island and the extent of Arctic sea ice reached the lowest level in the satellite record,

Ocean Data Support Global Warming Projections

The Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is emitting back into space, according to the new study, and the magnitude of imbalance cannot be explained by natural variability.

How much would sea level rise if polar ice melted

The real question is: Is the ice melting faster than falling snow is adding new ice?

How Much Excess Fresh Water Was Added to the North Atlantic in Recent Decades?

Until now, the actual amounts and rates of fresh water accumulation have not been explicitly known.

The Big Meltdown: Something’s Happening at both Poles

The coastline hadn’t changed for more than 9,000 years and then it changed completely in just a few weeks.”

Sea Level and Climate

If present trends continue, including an increase in global temperatures caused by increased greenhouse-gas emissions, many of the world's mountain glaciers will disappear. For example, at the current rate of melting, all glaciers will be gone from Glacier National Park, Montana, by the middle of the next century (fig. 1). In Iceland, about 11 percent of the island is covered by glaciers (mostly ice caps). If warming continues, Iceland's glaciers will decrease by 40 percent by 2100 and virtually disappear by 2200.


Water vapor feedback that affects the top of atmosphere radiation budget

Soden et al. deal with the aspect of water vapor feedback that affects the top of atmosphere radiation budget. The analysis consists in using various satellite observations to compare the behavior of mid to upper tropospheric water vapor between a general circulation model and reality.

Water vapor in Earth's upper troposphere

This image shows atmospheric water vapor in Earth's upper troposphere, about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument flying aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite.


The climate of Earth is able to support life in large part because of the atmospheric greenhouse effect and the workings of the hydrological cycle. Water in the gaseous phase, water vapor, is a key element in both of these. This report provides a basic description of the scientific understanding of the roles water vapor plays in the climate system.

Water Vapor Rules the Greenhouse System

This point is so crucial to the debate over global warming that how water vapor is or isn't factored into an analysis of Earth's greenhouse gases makes the difference between describing a significant human contribution to the greenhouse effect, or a negligible one.

Water builds the heat in Europe

The scientists say that rising temperatures caused by greenhouse gases are increasing humidity, which in turn amplifies the temperature rise. This is potentially a positive feedback mechanism which could increase the impact of greenhouse gases such as CO2.

Warming to Cause Catastrophic Rise in Sea Level

There is little doubt that the Earth is heating up. In the last century the average temperature has climbed about 0.6 degrees Celsius (about 1 degree Fahrenheit) around the world.

From the melting of the ice cap on Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's tallest peak, to the loss of coral reefs as oceans become warmer, the effects of global warming are often clear.


Arizona Water

Major_findings natural spring quality water

USGS--Arizona-Stream water quality generally is improving on the basis of nutrient and dissolved-solids concentrations in forest/rangeland streams. Statistical analysis of nitrogen data for forest/rangeland streams indicates that concentrations have generally declined since the early 1980s (fig. 7). Phosphorus concentration data showed the same trend as nitrogen.


USGS---Arizona--Water quality of forest/rangeland streams generally is improving over time. From 1950-90, dissolved-solids concentrations decreased in outflow from reservoirs as a result of dilution from increased precipitation and physical and chemical processes in reservoirs. A decrease in nutrient concentrations in forest/rangeland streams in the early 1980s to 1999 could be attributed to decreased contributions from natural sources, better land-use management practices upstream, or increased nitrogen use by aquatic life.

Surface Water Rights

To ensure a long-term, sufficient, and secure water supply for the State by promoting, allocating, and comprehensively managing in an environmentally and economically sound manner the rights and interests of the State’s surface water resources for the citizens of Arizona.


Hydrogeologic Data for the Coconino Plateau and Adjacent Areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona


Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona--2000-2001, and Performance and Sensitivity of the 1988 USGS Numerical Model of the N Aquifer

Plateau Planning Area

Most of the planning area lies within the Plateau uplands physiographic province which is bounded on the south by the Mogollon Rim and on the west by the Grand Wash cliffs in the western Grand Canyon.

Coconino Plateau Basin

The Coconino Plateau basin covers about 5,548 square miles in north-central Arizona

Little Colorado River Plateau Basin

The Little Colorado River Plateau basin occupies the northeast portion of Arizona


The regional aquifers are designated in descending order as the D-, N-, and C-aquifers.


Local aquifers are of great importance for domestic water supplies where the three regional aquifers, the D-, N-, and C-aquifers, are too deep or have unsuitable water quality.


The D-aquifer, one of the main aquifers north of the Little Colorado River, occurs over about a 3,125 square-mile area


The N-aquifer has an areal extent of 6,250 square miles and also occurs north of the Little Colorado River


The C-aquifer is the largest aquifer in the Little Colorado River Plateau basin with an areal extent of 21,655 square miles



The Arizona Groundwater Management Code establishes the legal framework for conserving water in Arizona's most populous areas.

To help achieve its goals, each AMA implements management plans corresponding to five management periods. The five management periods.

Among other things, the management plans establish conservation requirements for municipal, agricultural and industrial water users. In each successive management plan, water conservation and management requirements will become increasingly stringent.

Total Gallons Per Capita Per Day Program

For each management plan period, water providers in the AMA are assigned a GPCD target.

GPCD is calculated by taking the total water supplied by the provider and dividing that number by the population served and the number of days in the year.



Developing the Arizona Groundwater Management Code required answering some hard questions, including:

How much groundwater does Arizona have?

Who should be allowed to use that water?

For what purposes should groundwater be used?

How much should be withdrawn for specific uses? And,

How can Arizonans keep track of groundwater withdrawals?

In answering these questions, Arizonans realized water is not private property, but rather is a public resource that should be regulated for everyone's benefit.

ADWR Files Report on Phelps Dodge – Show Low Lake Case

The Arizona Department of Water Resources has filed its report with the Apache County Superior Court as part of a legal proceeding that will determine the nature, extent and relative priority of water rights within the watersheds of the Little Colorado River system.

The proceeding, known as the Little Colorado River Adjudication, is presided over by Judge Eddward P. Ballinger Jr.


AZ geothermal resource map.pdf

Arizona Geothermal Resources  Publication No. - INEEL/MIS-2002-1616 Rev. 1   November 2003


AZ WaterManagement Report.pdf


The Commission has completed its work and has found that the goals and legal framework contained in the Groundwater Code are sound and should continue to guide water management decisions and investments in the State’s five AMAs. However, the Commission also has identified areas that could be improved to address changing water management needs in the AMAs as well as areas that the original Act did not address.

The Commission recognizes that although groundwater mining has not been eliminated, water users, in response to the goals and requirements set forth in the Code, have significantly reduced groundwater mining in three of the five AMAs since the 1980s. However, current data indicate the Phoenix, Prescott and Tucson AMAs may not reach their goal of safe-yield by 2025.

PDF file of 97 pages




Surface water, Colorado River Water, Groundwater, Reclaimed water

How Much Water Are We Using?

Arizona uses approximately 7.24 million acre-feet of water, under normalized conditions. One acre-foot equals 325,851 gallons.

Sharing Colorado River Water

Sharing Colorado River Water: History, Public Policy and the Colorado River Compact (the following is excerpted from this document)

Law of the River

Wide seasonal and yearly fluctuations in Colorado River flows created problems for communities, that depended on Colorado River water for multiple uses.  Based on an estimate of 17 million acre-feet as the annual flow in the Colorado River.  Regardless of the varying water supplies of the River as follows: Wyoming = 14%, Utah = 23%, New Mexico =11.25%, and Colorado = 51.75%. because the average annual Colorado River flow has now been determined to be closer to 13.5 million AF, the Upper Basin's Colorado River yield is less than an average annual 7.5 million AF.

Little Colorado River litigation

Q. What is the background of the Little Colorado River litigation?

Colorado River water agreements

An unprecedented fight is shaping up over the 1922 Colorado River Compact, which governs how water in the river is divided between seven states.

Navajo Sue U.S. to Protect Colorado River Rights

In a case that bristles with far-reaching implications, the Navajo Nation has sued the federal government in an effort to obtain recognition of tribal claims to Colorado River water. A consideration of such rights could result in a rethinking of current state and federal water management policies and practices.

Little Colorado River Pending Cases Decisions

Today's pending cases decisions.  Links directly to Arizona Supreme Court.

Little Colorado River litigation

On November 22, 2002, the State of Arizona filed a Motion approximately 8.8 million acres of land currently held in trust by the State, which was acquired by way of various grants from the United States government, possess federal reserved water rights in accordance with the principles recognized in Winters v. United States, 207 U.S. 564 (1908), Arizona v. California,

Water rights 101

It's just a single incident, but with pundits saying water will be to the 21st century what oil was to the 20th, there's no time like the present - whether you live in the parched American West or elsewhere on the planet - to get a handle on the way things work.

Winters_v United States

Supreme Court decision upon which today's water laws/native indian rights are based. (1908).


This is the date and time set for a Status Conference in the Little Colorado River Water  Adjudication case, Civil No. 6417.



IT IS ORDERED, that a joint status hearing for claimants in the Little Colorado River Adjudication and the Gila River Adjudication will be held on October 1, 2004 at 1:30 p.m. in the Central Court Building, Courtroom 402, 201 West Jefferson Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona,

Show Low Lake Final Order.pdf



Corporation (Show Low Lake) At the hearing, Phelps Dodge confirmed that it has unequivocally and permanently abandoned any and all rights related to Show Low Lake, including those claimed water rights.

Arizona Water Bank

The Water Authority approved an agreement in December 2004 with Arizona that allows Nevada to store water in Arizona's groundwater aquifer.

Reduced 2005 SRP Water Allocation Rescinded  (posted 02/23/05)

Wetter-than-normal Fall, Winter Improve Reservoir Storage Conditions

Colorado River Info  (posted 02/23/05)

Total system storage is 30,531 KAF (51 percent of capacity)


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Personal Water Supplies & Water Quality






Arsenic FAQ  Arsenic Overview Series  Arsenic Overview Series  Arsenic  Overview Series  Arsenic Overview Series  Arsenic Overview Series  Arsenic Overview Series  Arsenic Overview Series

Arsenic Treatment Options for the Southwest

Membrane Technology Zone

Zero Waste: A Look at the Future of Reverse Osmosis   

Looking for information on Arsenic removal and treatment options

New "How-To" Guide for Protecting Drinking Water

Across America, undeveloped lands that protect regional and local drinking water supplies are threatened by population growth and sprawling development.

UV Use on the Rise

UV disinfection used at American Falls WWTP for disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater.

Sylvan Source Launches Ultra-Clean Water System for the Home at PCBC

Sylvan Source, the provider of ultra-clean water systems, launched the Sylvan Source M-600 System, an automatic, self-contained, ultra-clean water system for the home that reduces contaminants effectively.


What Is In Wastewater Anyway

Beginning in the septic tank, organic nitrogen compounds are broken down (mineralized) and inorganic ammonium (NH4+) is released.

Water Wells Polluted By Septic Tanks

In our world, drinking water contaminated with sewage is the principal cause of waterborne disease.  However ...

Septic Tank

Did you know about 25 percent of the U.S. population relies on decentralized—or onsite—wastewater treatment systems?

Septic System Design

Septic System FAQ's

Septic Tank and Drainfield Operation and Maintenance

Source Tracking Identifies Origins of Waterborne Pathogens


Tapping into the Ocean

Seawater desalination produces fresh, low-salinity potable water from seawater via membrane separation or evaporation.

Talkin About Regeneration

The opportunity is available and it is known as membrane regeneration--a process that extends membrane life and increases the time interval between cleanings at a fraction of the cost of membrane replacement.

Seawater Desalination With Reverse Osmosis

Not only has development been enhanced by this technology but, more importantly, the health and welfare of many people have been improved by the supply of sanitary fresh water supplies.

New Desalination Method Reduces Energy Costs

The Long Beach Seawater Desalination Research and Development Facility will be the nation’s largest, using dual-stage nanofiltration technology up to 30% more energy efficient than conventional methods

GE Invests in New Fluid Engineering Center of Excellence

Developed nations take clean drinking water at the twist of a tap for granted, but in many areas of the world, potable water is scarce or non-existent. The critical demand for clean water -- exacerbated by population expansion, environmental pollution and deforestation

Aging Water Infrastructure Requires Increased Government Spending on Restoration and Upgrading

With water becoming a scarce commodity, the aging U.S. water infrastructure is a cause for much concern.



The woman showed the people the pipe ceremony, where offerings were made to the four directions, while drums were played, and sacred songs were sung. The people learned of the connection between the sky and the earth and the unity of all life.

Origin and Nature of Emotions


Alternative Energy Discount House

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Find Clean, Sustainable Energy Products

which enhance your independence,

help clean up the environment,



Alternative Energy Discount House

Click Title for Link

Find Clean, Sustainable Energy Products

which enhance your independence,

help clean up the environment,