is much more than we know. Many scientists and leading edge researchers,
from around the planet, are continuing to report, that there is much more
to know about this ancient substance that supports and sustains our lives.
This information is leading us to alter our perceptions, and thereby our
relationships and responsibilities, to this miraculous element.
New research into the nature of water reveals an infinite variety of form and
structure. These varieties are reflected in the forms of the crystals of frozen
water. Masaru Emoto, a Japanese researcher, in his groundbreaking book, Messages
from Water and in his most recent book, Messages from Water Part 2,
explains how he freezes different samples of water and then photographs their
Messages from Water
Water has a very important message for us. Water is
telling us to take a much deeper look at ourselves. When we do look at our
selves through the mirror of water, the message becomes amazingly, crystal,
clear. We know that human life is directly connected to the quality of our
water, both within and all around us.
The Earth's Water Budget
Water covers 70% of the earth's surface, but it is difficult
to comprehend the total amount of water when we only see a small portion of it.
The following diagram displays the volumes of water contained on land, in
oceans, and in the atmosphere
Fresh, clean water is a limited resource. While most of the planet is
covered in water, it is salt water that can only be consumed by humans
and other species after undergoing desalination, which is an expensive
process. Occurrences such as droughts further limit access to clean and
fresh water, meaning people need to take steps to reduce water use and
save as much water as possible. In some areas of the world, access to
water is limited due to contamination. People who have access to fresh
water can take steps to limit their use of water to avoid waste.
(link provided by Ms Plasse's science
class at Green Mountain CS)
The Battle for
We are taught in school that
the Earth has a closed hydrologic system; water is continually being recycled
through rain and evaporation and none of it leaves the planet’s atmosphere. Not
only is there the same amount of water on the Earth today as there was at the
creation of the planet, it’s the same water.
Peak Water-- Aquifers and Rivers Are Running Dry. How Three Regions Are Coping
That the news is familiar makes it no less
alarming: 1.1 billion people, about one-sixth of the world's population, lack
access to safe drinking water. Aquifers under Beijing, Delhi, Bangkok, and
dozens of other rapidly growing urban areas are drying up. The rivers Ganges,
Jordan, Nile, and Yangtze — all dwindle to a trickle for much of the year. In
the former Soviet Union, the Aral Sea has shrunk to a quarter of its former
size, leaving behind a salt-crusted waste.
Health and aging depend on the quality,
content and structure of the water in our body. Since our body is
70% water, a cell is 70% water, and the DNA in the cell is 70%
water, then the water we put into our body must be significant in
how we age and how well our body can maintain a stable internal
environment to keep disease-producing influences from destroying
Drink the Water
is a warning you are used to hearing when you travel abroad, but now it
has hit us at home.
the Washington, D.C. based Environmental Working Group (EWG),
manufacturers dumped more than one billion pounds of toxic chemicals into
rivers, lakes and other bodies of water between 1990 and 1994. EWG also
estimates that manufacturers contributed about 450 million additional pounds via
Matter of Water
Next to Oxygen, no other
substance is more critical to human survival than water. Today we are witnessing
the emergence of critical shortages in sustainable supplies of potable drinking
water. The evidence that such shortages are becoming a permanent fixture in our
lives is provided by the increasing sums being invested in owning and
controlling the sources of potable water by multi-national conglomerates. The
race for control of potable water supplies has begun in earnest.
of Water Are It
Our thinking apparatus runs on water.
Our physical bodies are two-thirds water, so obviously its qualities can heal or
harm us. We now learn that water seems to remember and later convey
"information". No wonder the most dynamic frontier in science today is water
Water as an Alternative Medicine
all these terms have emerged in recent years to describe something we always
thought was just water.
What do the currents of the ocean really look like
Well let's start by saying that they are not the nice steady currents of the
books and school atlas. It would be better to start by thinking of a weather
map with high and low pressure regions acting like eddies and pushing the
clouds around in a fairly random manner. This is especially true of the deep
ocean (say below 1500m) where the mixing due to the eddy field is much
stronger than any mean current.
The Major Ocean Currents
As the wind blows
across the surface of a body of water, an amazing thing happens: the water
begins to move. First, small capillary waves are formed; tiny ripples of waves
which appear like a brushstroke across the water's surface. If the wind
continues to blow, larger waves appear, momentum is transferred to the water,
and the water begins to move.
Circulation and Transports in the Atlantic
A major role of
the oceans in the coupled climate system is the meridional transport of heat and
freshwater and the subsequent exchange with the atmosphere through air-sea
fluxes. Hydrographic sections across a selected few latitudes in the Atlantic
sector (such as 26 °N) provide us with "snapshots" of these meridional
The Caribbean Current
Current transports significant amounts of water northwestward through the
Caribbean Sea and into the Gulf of Mexico, via the Yucatan Current. The source
water for the Caribbean Current is from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean via the
North Equatorial, North Brazil, and Guiana Currents.
Currents in a Cul-de-Sac
We are all familiar with cul-de-sacs— neighborhoods where you have to
turn you car around to get out. The circulation of the Gulf of Mexico and
Caribbean is similar to a cul-de-sac.
Could the Atlantic
current switch off?
The Atlantic Ocean
overturning that maintains Europe’s moderate climate has slowed by 30 per cent
according to scientists from the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton
Could the Atlantic
current switch off?(2)
predict that temperatures in the UK could drop by as much as four degrees
centigrade if this current were to stop. The models show the temperature drop
would occur about a decade or two after a slowdown in the circulation.
sea ice loss
NASA researchers using Earth observation satellites are reporting a
significant loss in Arctic sea ice this year. On 21 September sea ice
extent dropped to 2.05 million square miles, the lowest extent yet
recorded in the satellite record. Incorporating the 2005 minimum using
satellite data going back to 1978, with a projection for ice growth in
the last few days of this September, brings the estimated decline in
Arctic sea ice to 8.5 percent per decade over the 27 year satellite
Water mass transports and transformations in the North Atlantic
In the North Atlantic, large-scale meridional transports can be related to
water mass transformation through air-sea heat and freshwater exchange. These
transports clearly show the poleward flow of warm, salty waters and the
equatorward return flow of cold, fresh water at high density.
Study Shows Southern Ocean Saturated with Carbon Dioxide
The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is so loaded with carbon dioxide that it
can barely absorb any more, so more of the gas will stay in the atmosphere to
warm up the planet, scientists reported Thursday.
The phenomenon wasn't expected to be apparent for decades..."We thought we would be able to detect these only the second
half of this century, say 2050 or so," she said. But data from
1981 through 2004 show the sink is already full of carbon
dioxide. "So I find this really quite alarming."
Study Sheds Light On Earth’s CO2 Cycles, Possible Impacts Of
A research team, including Kent State Professor
of Geology Dr. Joseph Ortiz, tracing the origin of the large carbon dioxide
increase in Earth’s atmosphere at the end of the last ice age has detected two
ancient “burps” that originated from the deepest parts of the southern ocean
“This is some of the clearest evidence yet that the enormous carbon
release into the atmosphere during the last deglaciation was triggered by
abrupt changes in deep ocean circulation,” Marchitto says.
Global warming - will we freeze?
What the experts are really saying
The engine that
drives this conveyor is in the Arctic; surface sea water there is cooled by
bitter winds, becomes denser, sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south -
the return current of warm surface water is the Gulf Stream. But this sinking
process can be disrupted when fresh water overlays the salty ocean water - fresh
water from rain, rivers or melting ice; an increase in fresh water could slow
down or even switch off the Gulf Stream. If it did, a 'what-if' experiment with
the Hadley Centre computer model shows that the UK would cool by up to 5 °C, and
it could happen quickly - in a matter of a decade or two. If it did happen, the
disruption to society would be enormous. But will it happen?
EMBARGOED BY NATURE
Water from glaciers and snow storage reserves to
dwindle in the decades ahead, affecting millions
The analysis first describes how water resource levels will change under
global warming's influence and then depicts impacts on regions in the
western United States, Europe, Canada, Asia and South America.
Seas absorb half of carbon dioxide pollution
The world's oceans have soaked up half of the carbon dioxide pumped
into the air by human activities since the beginning of the
industrial age, according to new two studies. The gas is acidifying
the seas and may harm marine life, the authors warn.
Warming of the
Data and Graphical
Depiction - - Supplementary Material
They show that the amount of deep return flow seems to have
gone down about 8 Sv (out of 25 Sv), and the amount of mid-ocean to
surface transport has gone up by about the same amount. This corresponds
to a roughly 30% apparent weakening in the so-called "Thermohaline
Circulation". Since the surface flow is warmer than the deep flow, there is
a consequent decrease in the northward heat flux of about 0.2 PW (or
Saltier or not?
Record-high salinities have been observed over the past decade
in the region where water from the Atlantic flows into the northern oceans; as a
whole the northern North Atlantic has become significantly fresher (less salty)
in recent decades. The amount of freshwater added in recent decades was much
larger than previously assumed. It is reasonable to assume that the freshwater
input will continue to increase in the future because the earth is warming,
causing increasing ice melt and increased precipitation (both over ocean and
over land, which yields larger river runoff to the ocean). On the other hand,
the subtropical waters can be expected to become saltier in the future, for the
Arctic could be ice-free in summer in 15 years
Recent melting of sea ice in the Arctic may
lead to the lowest level yet of ocean ice cover in the Arctic this summer,
resulting in drastic changes to the northern ecosystem, according to
scientists meeting at a conference in Winnipeg this week.
More than 120 scientists from nearly a dozen nations are attending the
meeting of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study.
“While we focus a great deal of attention on rising ocean
temperatures and the bleaching incidents they cause in corals, we tend
to overlook the other consequence of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide
on our corals: decreases in ocean pH,” Langdon said. “Carbon dioxide
in the ocean is creating a growingly acidic environment for corals,
and this acidity could ultimately cause our reefs to waste away.”
Oceans may soon be more corrosive than when the dinosaurs died
dioxide emissions are rapidly making the world's oceans more acidic and, if
unabated, could cause a mass extinction of marine life similar to one that
occurred 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs disappeared.
La Niña is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the
equatorial Pacific, as compared to El Niño, which is characterized by unusually
warm ocean temperatures in the equatorial Pacific
In the U.S., winter temperatures are warmer than
normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest.
At higher latitudes, El Niño and La Niña are among a number of factors that
influence climate. However, the impacts of El Niño and La Niña at these
latitudes are most clearly seen in wintertime. In the continental US, during El
Niño years, temperatures in the winter are warmer than normal in the North
Central States, and cooler than normal in the Southeast and the Southwest.
During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the
Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest.
So Long, El Nino;
Hello, La Nina
The El Nino
weather pattern that helped stymie hurricane development last year is fading and
could be replaced by conditions that favor hurricane formation.
Past the Edge
by itself cannot be expected to improve the quality of our lives. Indeed, until
we are willing to fundamentally alter the way we treat the planet and each
other, our technologies may extinguish all life as we know it within the next 50
years. This is a bitter and sobering thought. We are running out of time.
Let us analyze some forces
that may cause old Mother Earth to "slip a disk" (or a plate?)
EVALUATION OF EROSION HAZARDS SUMMARY (Excerpted)
This independent report, Evaluation of Erosion Hazards,
provides a much-needed and valuable assessment of coastal erosion and the
resulting loss of property along our Nation's ocean and Great Lakes shorelines.
One of the report's most sobering findings is that within the
next 60 years approximately 25 percent of homes located within 500 feet of the
coast (excluding those located in most urban centers) will fall victim to the
effects of erosion.
quick water reminders
Water takes up seventy-five percent of the earth’s surface.
However usable fresh water makes up a very small percentage, which makes fresh
water to be a precious and valuable resource.
Science & Technology of Water
Man uses water not only for drinking and cooking,
but also for bathing, washing, laundering, heating, and air conditioning; for
agriculture, raising stock and gardens; for industrial purposes, cooling, for
water power and steam power; for fire protection; for disposal of wastes; and
for recreational purposes such as swimming, fishing and boating.
Overview of Water
I am a fifth and sixth grade science teacher. I believe
it is my duty to educate my students in acquiring enough knowledge to inform the
public of the importance in keeping our water safe and clean in order to
preserve the wildlife that thrive in our waterways.
Ocean Energy Report for 2005
Ocean energy technologies have been around for decades.
But for a variety of reasons, including rising oil prices, technological
advancements and the sheer grit of a handful of pioneer developers, ocean energy
has made a huge splash in 2005. We'll list this year's ocean energy milestones
and then discuss what needs to be done so the ocean energy industry keeps its
UN Report Ranks Nations' Water Quantity Quality
Included as part of the report's analysis is a ranking of over 180 countries
and territories of the amount of renewable water available per capita in
each area. This includes all of the water circulating on the surface, in the
soil or deeper underground. Also ranked is the quality of the 180 countries'
water. Figured into this ranking is the countries's ability and commitment
to improve their situations.
Water scarcity.htm: A looming crisis?
The world's water crisis is simple to understand, if not
The amount of water in the world is finite. The number of us is growing
fast and our water use is growing even faster.
Water Scarcity Could Affect Billions: Is This the Biggest Crisis
Population growth, pollution and climate change, all accelerating, are
likely to combine to produce a drastic decline in water supply in the coming
decades, according to the World Water Development Report, published today.
And of course that supply is already problematic for up to a third of the
Coal-fired power plants utilize significant quantities of both coal and water
for generating electrical energy
Coal-fired power plants utilize
significant quantities of both coal and water for generating electrical energy.
For example, a 500 MW power plant burns approximately 250 tons per
hour of coal while using over 12 million gallons per hour of water for
cooling and other process requirements.
EarthNews Radio: Ways to Save Water
The Color of Water -- A Guest Commentary
Take this quiz to test your knowledge of water conservation.
Water Use Calculator: Find out how much water you use at home.
WaterWiser Drip Calculator
new water wars
But rain or not, the problem along the Missouri River is
chronic. Routinely, there is not enough water in a system that gives priority to
navigation. The Army Corps of Engineers interprets its Master Manual to say
there must be sufficient water in the 732-mile stretch of lower river to
maintain navigation, a criterion which in recent years has helped to keep the
upper Missouri mighty dry.
The Color of Water -- An ENN Commentary
Our country is polarized over very basic issues: taxes; the
size and role of government; religion and secular priorities. Yet at a time when
many things are increasingly viewed through red or blue political glasses, we
might take a lesson from recent polls that show the American people can
sometimes be color-blind.
Safe Water: World Water Week
Can economic growth, sustainable development, improved public
health and reduced poverty levels of underprivileged communities all come from a
glass of clean drinking water?
Crisis on tap! Pollution and burgeoning populations stress
earth's water resources
Earth gets one of its nicknames, the Blue Planet, from the way it
looks from space. About 70 percent of the planet's surface is covered
with water, a substance that known types of life can't do without. All
told, the oceans, land, and atmosphere hold the equivalent of almost
1.4 billion cubic kilometers of liquid water. About 96.5 percent of
that total is salty ocean, a little more than 2 percent of the total
is locked up in ice, and a smidgen wafts as vapor in the atmosphere.
That leaves just over 1 percent as water that's readily available for
An estimated third of the world's population currently lives
in water-stressed countries. This is set to increase to two-thirds within 25
Chemistry of Sea Water.pdf
MATTER, ELEMENTS, ATOMS: BASIC CHEMISTRY
Water , The
Mother Within Our Mother, Flowforms
Flowforms were first created
by the keen observations of people deep in the realms of art, geometry and
science. These were people who noted motions and patterns in nature and that
such patterns could be described in consistent mathematical terms. The ripples
and swirling eddies; patterns in wood and bone and muscle; seas of sand;
chambers of seashells; and meanders of free-flowing streams all ‘spoke’ the same
Year of the Ocean
IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE—
WITH EMPHASIS ON U.S. COASTAL AREAS
Study Reports Large-scale Salinity Changes in the Oceans
Perhaps the first scientist to have
realized that permafrost and seafloor methane hydrate release may have played a
role in the end-Permian extinction was Doug Erwin (1993). Erwin indicated
that methane and carbon dioxide (from both the oxidation of exposed continental
shelf organic carbon and methane, "and possibly other sources") would have
contributed to global warming and "possible oceanic anoxia". What Erwin missed was the importance -- indeed, the
indispensibility -- of the rapid increase of these gases for the transformation
of global climate and marine chemistry. (The rate of release is crucial.)
Methane Burps Ticking Time Bomb
There are enormous
quantities of naturally occurring greenhouse gasses trapped in ice-like
structures in the cold northern muds and at the bottom of the seas. These
ices, called clathrates, contain 3,000 times as much methane as is in the
METHANE CATASTROPHE THAT AWAITS US TOMOROW
What happened at the end of the Permian is long, long ago, but not far, far
away. The catastrophic release of methane from the seafloor is not just
something which was long ago. It can, and -- unless we change our way of dealing
with our planet, and change it fast -- will happen again tomorrow.
New Study Reports Large-scale
Salinity Changes in the Oceans (graphics enlarged)
Ocean's Role in Climate
Testimony to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science
July 18, 2000
of Ocean Circulation Directly Linked to Abrupt Climate Change in North Atlantic
A new study strengthens evidence that the oceans and climate
are linked in an intricate dance, and that rapid climate change may be related
to how vigorously ocean currents transport heat from low to high latitudes.
Map of Earth's Currents
One extremely important attribute of thermohaline
circulation is that it carries oxygenated water to the deep ocean. The polar
seas (the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean) that produce the frigid water
which drives the Great Ocean Conveyer are storm-swept, especially in winter.
This turbulence oxygenates the water, and its frigidity (like a frigid can of
soda) allows it to carry lots of dissolved gas. Descending to the ocean floor,
this frigid water thereby oxygenates the deep sea. Without this input of highly
oxygenated water, the deep ocean would become anoxic.
The North Atlantic Drift
Aptly named, the North Atlantic Drift Current (NADC) is a
slow-moving body of water located between about 50°-64°N and 10°-30°W. NADC is
also considered to be an extension of the North Atlantic Current. It is
recognized as a shallow, widespread and variable wind-driven surface movement
of warm water that covers a large part of the eastern subpolar North Atlantic
and slowly spills into the Nordic Seas.
does tsunami energy travel across the ocean and how far can tsunamis waves reach
The wave crests of a tsunami can be a thousand km (1500 miles)
long, and from a few to a hundred kilometers (150 miles) or more apart as they
travel across the ocean.
The speed at which tsunamis travel
depends on the ocean depth. A tsunami can exceed 500
mph in the deep ocean but slows to 20 or 30 mph in the
shallow water near land.
is a mega-tsunami and can it happen today?
- No such event - a mega tsunami - has occurred in either the
Atlantic or Pacific oceans in recorded history. NONE.
are some of the largest historical tsunamis
The 1 April 1946 Aleutian
Earthquake and Tsunami
The 4 November 1952 Kamchatka Earthquake and
The 9 March 1957 Aleutian Earthquake and
The 22 May 1960 Chilean Earthquake and
The 28 March 1964 Alaska Earthquake and
determines how destructive a tsunami will be near the origin and at a distant
Even if a tsunami wave may have been 1 meter (3 1/3 ft)
or less in the deep ocean, it may grow into a huge 30-35 meter (100-115 foot)
wave when it sweeps over the shore.
Wind energy industries are growing, and as we look for
alternative power sources, the growth potential is through the roof.
Rising Seas Swamp Some Small Island States?
island nations meet in Mauritius from Jan. 10-14 for talks about threats
including a creeping rise in sea levels blamed by most scientists on global
Until recently, ocean scientists thought of the deep ocean
abyss as a dark, cold but serene place where small particles rained gently onto
the ocean floor. However, instruments lowered to the sea floor to measure ocean
motion or currents and resulting mobilization of bottom sediments detected a
much more active environment. Scientists found that bottom currents and abyssal
storms occasionally scour the ocean bottom, generating moving clouds of
Bringer of death, bringer of life
A wall of water caused the biggest natural disaster of 2004:
now it is the turn of relief agencies and water professionals to make sure that
2005 does not see disease killing as many people as did that deadly wave.
Seas Threaten Islands, Cities, Coasts
sounds insignificant alongside the Indian Ocean tsunami, yet an almost
imperceptible annual rise in the world's oceans may pose a huge threat to ports,
coasts and islands by 2100.
Ice Cap Is Melting Fast
cover of ice is melting ten times quicker than previously thought, an increase
that could lead to floods across the world, scientists have found.
The Greenland icecap contains 1/8th of the total global
ice-melt 'speeding up'
Carl Boggild and his team have recorded falls as dramatic as
10 metres a year - in places the ice is dropping at a rate of one metre a month.
ice cap 'doomed to meltdown'
The Greenland ice sheet is all but doomed to melt away to
nothing, according to a new modelling study. If it does melt, global sea levels
will rise by seven metres, flooding most of the world's coastal regions.
and Ice Sheets
Over 75% of the world's fresh
water is presently locked up in these frozen reservoirs.
SEA ICE SHRINKING
The total area of surface melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet for
2002 broke all known records for the island and the extent of Arctic sea ice
reached the lowest level in the satellite record,
Data Support Global Warming Projections
The Earth is absorbing more energy from the Sun than it is
emitting back into space, according to the new study, and the magnitude of
imbalance cannot be explained by natural variability.
much would sea level rise if polar ice melted
The real question is: Is the ice melting faster
than falling snow is adding new ice?
Much Excess Fresh Water Was Added to the North Atlantic in Recent Decades?
Until now, the actual amounts and rates
of fresh water accumulation have not been explicitly known.
Big Meltdown: Something’s Happening at both Poles
The coastline hadn’t changed for more than
9,000 years and then it changed completely in just a few weeks.”
Sea Level and Climate
If present trends continue, including an increase in global
temperatures caused by increased greenhouse-gas emissions, many of the world's
mountain glaciers will disappear. For example, at the current rate of melting,
all glaciers will be gone from Glacier National Park, Montana, by the middle of
the next century (fig. 1). In Iceland, about 11 percent of the island is covered
by glaciers (mostly ice caps). If warming continues, Iceland's glaciers will
decrease by 40 percent by 2100 and virtually disappear by 2200.
Water vapor feedback that affects the top of atmosphere radiation
Soden et al. deal with the aspect of water vapor
feedback that affects the top of atmosphere radiation budget. The
analysis consists in using various satellite observations to compare the
behavior of mid to upper tropospheric water vapor between a general
circulation model and reality.
vapor in Earth's upper troposphere
This image shows atmospheric water vapor in Earth's upper
troposphere, about 10 kilometers (6 miles) above the surface, as measured by the
Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument flying aboard the Upper Atmosphere
WATER VAPOR in the CLIMATE SYSTEM
The climate of Earth is able to support life in large part because of the
atmospheric greenhouse effect and the workings of the hydrological cycle. Water
in the gaseous phase, water vapor, is a key element in both of these. This
report provides a basic description of the scientific understanding of the roles
water vapor plays in the climate system.
Water Vapor Rules the Greenhouse System
This point is so crucial to the debate over global
warming that how water vapor is or
isn't factored into
an analysis of Earth's greenhouse gases makes the difference between
describing a significant human contribution to the greenhouse
effect, or a negligible one.
Water builds the heat in Europe
The scientists say that rising temperatures caused by greenhouse gases
are increasing humidity, which in turn amplifies the temperature rise. This is potentially a positive feedback mechanism which could increase
the impact of greenhouse gases such as CO2.
Warming to Cause Catastrophic Rise in Sea Level
There is little doubt that the Earth is heating up. In the
last century the average temperature has climbed about 0.6
degrees Celsius (about 1 degree Fahrenheit) around the world.
melting of the ice cap on Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's
tallest peak, to the loss of coral reefs as oceans become
warmer, the effects of global warming are often clear.
natural spring quality water
USGS--Arizona-Stream water quality generally is improving on
the basis of nutrient and dissolved-solids concentrations in
forest/rangeland streams. Statistical analysis of nitrogen data for
forest/rangeland streams indicates that concentrations have generally declined
since the early 1980s (fig. 7). Phosphorus concentration data showed the same
trend as nitrogen.
OF MAJOR FINDINGS
USGS---Arizona--Water quality of forest/rangeland streams generally
is improving over time. From 1950-90, dissolved-solids concentrations
decreased in outflow from reservoirs as a result of dilution from
increased precipitation and physical and chemical processes in
reservoirs. A decrease in nutrient concentrations in forest/rangeland
streams in the early 1980s to 1999 could be attributed to decreased
contributions from natural sources, better land-use management practices
upstream, or increased nitrogen use by aquatic life.
To ensure a long-term, sufficient, and secure
water supply for the State by promoting, allocating, and comprehensively
managing in an environmentally and economically sound manner the rights and
interests of the State’s surface water resources for the citizens of Arizona.
Data for the Coconino Plateau and Adjacent Areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties,
Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern
Arizona--2000-2001, and Performance and Sensitivity of the 1988 USGS Numerical
Model of the N Aquifer
Most of the planning area lies within the Plateau uplands
physiographic province which is bounded on the south by the Mogollon Rim and on
the west by the Grand Wash cliffs in the western Grand Canyon.
The Coconino Plateau basin covers about 5,548 square miles in
Colorado River Plateau Basin
The Little Colorado River Plateau basin occupies the northeast
portion of Arizona
The regional aquifers are designated in descending order as
the D-, N-, and C-aquifers.
Local aquifers are of great importance for domestic water
supplies where the three regional aquifers, the D-, N-, and C-aquifers, are too
deep or have unsuitable water quality.
The D-aquifer, one of the main aquifers north of the Little
Colorado River, occurs over about a 3,125 square-mile area
The N-aquifer has an areal extent of 6,250 square miles and
also occurs north of the Little Colorado River
The C-aquifer is the largest aquifer in the Little Colorado
River Plateau basin with an areal extent of 21,655 square miles
ARIZONA CONSERVATION REQUIREMENTS
The Arizona Groundwater Management Code establishes the legal
framework for conserving water in Arizona's most populous
To help achieve its goals, each AMA implements management plans
corresponding to five management periods. The five management
Among other things, the management plans establish conservation
requirements for municipal, agricultural and industrial water
users. In each successive management plan, water conservation and management
requirements will become increasingly
Total Gallons Per Capita Per Day
For each management plan period, water providers in the AMA are
assigned a GPCD target.
GPCD is calculated by taking the total water supplied by the
provider and dividing that number by the population served and the number of
days in the year.
OVERVIEW OF THE
ARIZONA GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT CODE
Developing the Arizona Groundwater Management Code required
answering some hard questions, including:
How much groundwater does
Who should be allowed to use that
For what purposes should
groundwater be used?
How much should be withdrawn
for specific uses? And,
How can Arizonans keep track
of groundwater withdrawals?
In answering these questions, Arizonans realized water is not
private property, but rather is a public resource that should be
regulated for everyone's benefit.
ADWR Files Report on Phelps Dodge – Show Low Lake Case
The Arizona Department of Water Resources
has filed its report with the Apache County Superior Court as part of a legal
proceeding that will determine the nature, extent and relative priority of water
rights within the watersheds of the Little Colorado River system.
The proceeding, known as the Little Colorado
River Adjudication, is presided over by Judge Eddward P. Ballinger Jr.
geothermal resource map.pdf
Arizona Geothermal Resources Publication No. - INEEL/MIS-2002-1616
Rev. 1 November 2003
The Commission has completed its work and has found that the
goals and legal framework contained in the
Groundwater Code are sound and should continue to guide water
management decisions and investments in the State’s five AMAs. However, the
Commission also has identified areas that could be
improved to address changing water management
needs in the AMAs as well as areas that the original Act did not address.
The Commission recognizes that although groundwater mining has
not been eliminated, water users, in
response to the goals and requirements set forth in the Code, have significantly
reduced groundwater mining in three of the five AMAs since the 1980s. However,
current data indicate the Phoenix, Prescott and Tucson AMAs may not reach their
goal of safe-yield by 2025.
PDF file of 97 pages
AZ Water SUPPLY DEMAND.pdf
SUPPLIES ARE AVAILABLE
Surface water, Colorado River Water, Groundwater, Reclaimed water
How Much Water Are We Using?
Arizona uses approximately 7.24 million acre-feet of water,
under normalized conditions. One acre-foot equals 325,851 gallons.
Colorado River Water
Sharing Colorado River Water: History, Public Policy and the
Colorado River Compact (the following is excerpted from this document)
Wide seasonal and yearly fluctuations in Colorado River flows
created problems for communities, that depended on Colorado River water for
multiple uses. Based on an estimate of 17 million acre-feet as the annual
flow in the Colorado River. Regardless of the varying water supplies of
the River as follows: Wyoming = 14%, Utah = 23%, New Mexico =11.25%, and
Colorado = 51.75%. because the average annual Colorado River flow has now been
determined to be closer to 13.5 million AF, the Upper Basin's Colorado River
yield is less than an average annual 7.5 million AF.
Colorado River litigation
Q. What is the background of the Little Colorado River
River water agreements
An unprecedented fight is shaping up over the 1922 Colorado
River Compact, which governs how water in the river is divided between seven
Sue U.S. to Protect Colorado River Rights
In a case that bristles with far-reaching implications, the
Navajo Nation has sued the federal government in an effort to obtain recognition
of tribal claims to Colorado River water. A consideration of such rights could
result in a rethinking of current state and federal water management policies
Colorado River Pending Cases Decisions
Today's pending cases decisions. Links directly to Arizona
Colorado River litigation
On November 22, 2002, the
State of Arizona filed a Motion approximately 8.8
million acres of land currently held in trust by the
State, which was acquired by way of various grants from the
United States government, possess federal reserved water rights
in accordance with the principles recognized in Winters v.
United States, 207 U.S. 564 (1908), Arizona
It's just a single incident, but with pundits saying water will be to the
21st century what oil was to the 20th, there's no time like the present -
whether you live in the parched American West or elsewhere on the planet -
to get a handle on the way things work.
Supreme Court decision upon which today's water laws/native
indian rights are based. (1908).
This is the date and time set for
a Status Conference in the Little Colorado River Water
case, Civil No. 6417.
IT IS ORDERED, that a joint
status hearing for claimants in the Little Colorado
River Adjudication and the Gila River Adjudication
will be held on October 1, 2004 at 1:30 p.m. in the Central
Court Building, Courtroom 402, 201 West Jefferson Avenue,
Show Low Lake Final Order.pdf
IN RE THE GENERAL ADJUDICATION OF ALL RIGHTS TO USE WATER IN THE
LITTLE COLORADO RIVER SYSTEM AND SOURCE CIVIL NO. CV 6417 Contested Case No.
ORDER DISMISSING WITH PREJUDICE CONTESTED CASE In re Phelps Dodge
Corporation (Show Low Lake) At the hearing, Phelps Dodge
confirmed that it has unequivocally and permanently abandoned any and all rights
related to Show Low Lake, including those claimed water rights.
The Water Authority approved an agreement
in December 2004 with Arizona that allows Nevada to store water in Arizona's
2005 SRP Water Allocation Rescinded (posted
Wetter-than-normal Fall, Winter
Improve Reservoir Storage Conditions
River Info (posted 02/23/05)
system storage is 30,531 KAF (51 percent of capacity)
Search the on-line Arizona Water Resource
Subscribe to the Arizona Water Resource mailing
Personal Water Supplies & Water Quality
DATA FROM THE CENTRAL ARIZONA BASINS IN A NATIONAL CONTEXT
Arsenic FAQ Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Overview Series Arsenic
Treatment Options for the Southwest
Waste: A Look at the Future of Reverse Osmosis
information on Arsenic removal and treatment options
"How-To" Guide for Protecting Drinking Water
Across America, undeveloped lands that
protect regional and local drinking water supplies are threatened by population
growth and sprawling development.
UV Use on
UV disinfection used at American Falls WWTP for
disinfecting municipal drinking water and wastewater.
Source Launches Ultra-Clean Water System for the Home at PCBC
Sylvan Source, the provider of ultra-clean water systems,
launched the Sylvan Source M-600 System, an automatic, self-contained,
ultra-clean water system for the home that reduces contaminants effectively.
Is In Wastewater Anyway
Beginning in the septic tank, organic
nitrogen compounds are broken down (mineralized) and inorganic ammonium (NH4+)
Wells Polluted By Septic Tanks
In our world, drinking water contaminated
with sewage is the principal cause of waterborne disease. However ...
you know about 25 percent of the U.S. population relies on decentralized—or
onsite—wastewater treatment systems?
Septic System FAQ's
Tank and Drainfield Operation and Maintenance
Tracking Identifies Origins of Waterborne Pathogens
into the Ocean
Seawater desalination produces fresh, low-salinity potable
water from seawater via membrane separation or evaporation.
The opportunity is available and it is known as membrane
regeneration--a process that extends membrane life and increases the time
interval between cleanings at a fraction of the cost of membrane replacement.
Desalination With Reverse Osmosis
Not only has development been enhanced by this technology
but, more importantly, the health and welfare of many people have been improved
by the supply of sanitary fresh water supplies.
Desalination Method Reduces Energy Costs
The Long Beach Seawater Desalination Research and
Development Facility will be the nation’s largest, using dual-stage
nanofiltration technology up to 30% more energy efficient than conventional
Invests in New Fluid Engineering Center of Excellence
Developed nations take clean drinking water at the twist of a
tap for granted, but in many areas of the world, potable water is scarce or
non-existent. The critical demand for clean water -- exacerbated by population
expansion, environmental pollution and deforestation
Water Infrastructure Requires Increased Government Spending on Restoration and
With water becoming a scarce commodity, the aging U.S. water
infrastructure is a cause for much concern.
The woman showed the people the pipe ceremony, where offerings
were made to the four directions, while drums were played, and sacred songs were
sung. The people learned of the connection between the sky and the earth and the
unity of all life.
and Nature of Emotions